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2    
3     \chapter[\ctinzeroshorttitle{}]{\ctinzerolongtitle{}}
4    
5     \label{ctin0}
6    
7     \index{Hobbs, Jeffrey}
8     \beginchapterquote{``I may seem more arrogant, but I think that's just because
9     you didn't realize how arrogant I was before.''}
10     {Jeffrey Hobbs \cite{bibref:i:jeffreyhobbs}, Tcl Ambassador, Ajuba Solutions}
11    
12     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
13     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
14     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
15    
16     %Section Tag: INT
17     \section{Overview Of The Iju Tool Set}
18     \index{IjuTools}\index{Iju!tool set}
19     The \emph{Iju}\footnote{The name \emph{Iju} is an acronym for
20     ``\emph{I}t's \emph{J}ust \emph{U}s'', and has its origins in
21     a dilbertesque conversation between disgruntled engineers
22     in a large company years ago where it
23     was stated that we felt \emph{it's just us} who understood
24     the nature of certain product problems.} tool set (or \emph{IjuTools} for short)
25     is a collection of utilities and research tools which are
26     useful for small microcontroller work. At this time, the current version of
27     IjuTools is v1.05.
28    
29     As of v1.05, IjuTools consists of [only] the following components.
30    
31     \begin{itemize}
32     \item \emph{IjuScripter}, a statically linked\footnote{By \emph{statically linked}
33     I mean that a monolithic executable which is complete and requires no
34     DLLs is provided.} version of Tclsh, with extensions.
35    
36     \item \emph{IjuConsole}, a statically linked version of Wish, with extensions.
37    
38     \item A set of DOS command-line utilities. In many cases, these utilities
39     perform functions similar to the Tcl/Tk extensions incorporated into
40     IjuScripter/IjuConsole.
41     \item Supplemental example scripts, technical papers, books, and URLs.\footnote{As
42     of v1.03, just a few, but I hope the list will grow.}
43     \end{itemize}
44    
45     IjuTools is built around Tcl/Tk 8.3.1.\index{Tcl}\index{Tk}
46     Tcl is a scripting language from
47     Scriptics\index{Scriptics} (now Interwoven).\index{Interwoven}
48     At the present time,
49     all components of the tool set are implemented
50     as Tcl extensions, so that they can be executed interactively or as part of
51     a script. The scripted nature of the tool set gives users the ability to
52     use the tool set components together in arbitrary ways.
53    
54     Although IjuTools is slanted towards microcontroller software development,
55     it is a good general automation solution (in the same sense that
56     Tcl and Tk are), and it can be used for other endeavors. (In fact,
57     the generation of this book is automated using IjuConsole.)
58    
59     At the present time, \emph{The Iju Tool Set} (including this
60     book) is maintained
61     at the site \texttt{http://ijutools.sourceforge.net} as an
62     open-source product. All source code may be freely downloaded.
63     In the future, in order to recoup some of the cost of producing
64     the tool set, some of the convenient distributions (packaged installations,
65     printed materials, and media) may be sold
66     for a small fee. However, all of the source code will remain
67     public and free.
68    
69    
70     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
71     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
72     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
73     %Design Goals Of IjuTools
74     %Section tag: DGI
75     \section{IjuTools Design Goals}
76     The design goals of IjuTools are enumerated below.
77     Each goal is discussed in more detail later.
78    
79     \begin{itemize}
80    
81     \item \textbf{Stability, Repeatability, And Lack Of Intermittent Behavior:}
82     because the tool set will be used to produce ROM images, it must be very reliable.
83    
84     \item \textbf{Extensibility:}
85     it must be straightforward to extend the capabilities of the tool set.
86    
87     \item \textbf{Cross-Platform Capability:}
88     the tool set should have a migration path to platforms other than Microsoft
89     Windows.
90    
91     \item \textbf{Utility:}
92     the tool set should be genuinely useful.
93    
94     \end{itemize}
95    
96     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
97     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
98     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
99     \subsection{Stability, Repeatability, And Lack Of Intermittent Behavior}
100    
101     \emph{Microsoft Windows}\index{Windows}\index{Microsoft Windows}\index{Microsoft!Windows}
102     is surely the most despised computing
103     platform in the world. The complaints include
104     lack of stability, incomplete uninstallation of
105     applications, and unintended interactions between
106     applications. Web servers,\index{web server}\index{HTTP server}
107     file servers,\index{file server} and mail\index{mail server}
108     servers are often hosted under Unix\index{Unix} or Linux\index{Linux}
109     rather than a Microsoft product because
110     the MTBF for Windows is typically hundreds of hours, whereas the the MTBF
111     for Unix or Linux is typically hundreds of days. However, most microcontroller
112     software development is done on Windows platforms.
113    
114     Defects in Windows are unlikely to result
115     in the corruption of a ROM image or in incorrect data (human error is
116     a more likely cause). However, to minimize the possibility of human error and
117     unforeseen interactions between applications, IjuTools possesses the following design
118     characteristics.
119    
120     \begin{itemize}
121    
122     \item \textbf{DLLs and the Windows registry are not used.}
123     Each component of \emph{The Iju Tool Set} is a monolithic
124     executable image (an .EXE file). This makes it impossible
125     to mismatch an application
126     with the DLLs it requires. Additionally, the Windows registry,
127     which may cause differences in behavior from machine to machine,
128     is not used. Although the IjuTools installation installs executable
129     files in specific directories, any of these executable files may be copied
130     or moved to other locations or to other machines (without an installation process),
131     because the executable files are standalone and have no DLL or registry
132     dependencies.
133    
134     \item \textbf{Executable files are internally versioned.}
135     IjuTools version numbers are never re-used, and each executable component
136     of the tool set ``knows'' its version number. IjuScripter and IjuConsole
137     contain embedded commands to allow a script to determine the version number of
138     the executable. Thus, it is possible to author scripts that will only run
139     with a specific version of IjuScripter or IjuConsole.
140    
141     \end{itemize}
142    
143     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
144     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
145     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
146     \subsection{Extensibility}
147    
148     The two core components of IjuTools (IjuScripter and IjuConsole) are extensible in the
149     sense that additional commands can be added to the language understood by the tools.
150     Because of the way in which Tcl treats strings (they can be of arbitrary length), the output
151     of a built-in command can be easily retained in RAM (for further processing by other
152     commands) or placed in a file (as output).
153     Thus, if parsing or file transformation is involved, it is easy to make the claim that
154     IjuTools is ``arbitrarily extensible'' because commands can be added arbitrarily to IjuScripter
155     and IjuConsole..
156    
157     For microcontroller work, this type of extensibility is probably adequate.
158    
159     However, no framework has yet been developed to encompass the integration of
160     GUI applications or additional executables into IjuTools. I welcome suggestions
161     in this area.
162    
163     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
164     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
165     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
166     \subsection{Cross-Platform Capability}
167    
168     Windows is presently the dominant platform for microcontroller software
169     development. However, it is easy to envision scenarios in which Linux or Unix become
170     popular platforms for certain types of development.
171    
172     Tcl/Tk inherently runs on Windows, Linux, Unix, and Solaris platforms.
173     (I'm sure that designing one set of source code that fits all of these
174     platforms has caused Scriptics substantial technical anguish, but they
175     were successful in this.) To ensure that IjuScripter and IjuConsole are
176     portable to these other platforms if necessary, the following steps
177     are planned.
178    
179     \begin{itemize}
180    
181     \item All changes to the Tcl/Tk 8.3.1 core (the changes will be bug fixes
182     only) will be logged so that they can be
183     reproduced if IjuTools is ported to another platform using
184     the original Scriptics 8.3.1 code as the starting
185     point.\footnote{As the Tcl 8.3.1 core is maintained,
186     to clean up the Windows source code and enhance clarity, it is natural
187     to eliminate blocks of code that are preprocessed out and do not
188     enter the compile stream for a Windows build. This type of maintenance
189     will make it impossible to compile the code for any other platform,
190     and hence the original Scriptics code would be necessary as a starting
191     point.}
192    
193     \item Extensions will follow coding standards to minimize platform dependencies
194     and enhance portability
195     (sizes of ordinal data sizes, use of floating-point arithmetic, etc.).
196    
197     \item Extensions will not make use of the Win32 API or standard library
198     calls---instead, they will interact only with the Tcl/Tk core.
199    
200     \end{itemize}
201    
202    
203     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
204     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
205     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
206     \subsection{Utility}
207    
208     In the assembly of IjuTools and supporting materials, I hope and believe
209     I've met the goal of providing something genuinely useful for microcontroller
210     software developers. I've listed below the characteristics of the tool set
211     which I feel most enhance its usefulness.
212    
213     \begin{itemize}
214     \item \textbf{The tools can be used interactively as well as from a script.}
215     Because Tcl commands can be used
216     both interactively and from
217     a script, IjuScripter and IjuConsole are useful for interactive
218     tasks (file conversions, impromptu calculations). For example,
219     with no calculator handy, \texttt{expr sqrt(5)} can be used
220     interactively in IjuScripter or IjuConsole to obtain $\sqrt{5}$.
221     \item \textbf{The tools are suitable for orchestrating microcontroller
222     software builds.} Microcontroller software builds tend to be
223     awkward, complex, and to involve many steps---utilities such as
224     \texttt{MAKE} fall short in their ability to support
225     such builds. The Tcl scripting language
226     is rich enough to allow the automation of these kinds of software builds.
227     \item \textbf{The tools can be used as a general automation utility.}
228     The static executables provided can be used
229     to automate common office tasks; such as
230     removing all files last modified prior to a certain date,
231     or searching your boss' computer for information
232     about your colleagues' salaries while your boss is away at lunch.
233     \item \textbf{The full source code for the tools is available.} The full
234     source code for the tools is available at
235     \texttt{http://ijutools.sourceforge.net}.
236     The source code can be useful in several ways.
237     \begin{itemize}
238     \item The source code contains all project files for the GUI version
239     of Microsoft Visual C++. It can be used as a quick way to get
240     a Tcl/Tk GUI build for Windows up and going.\footnote{Two notes on this
241     \ldots{} First, the base source code is available from Scriptics
242     for free, but as of this writing, Scriptics does not support
243     a GUI build (instead, they provide a MAKE file). The port to
244     the GUI interface is not wholly straightforward and requires
245     some effort. Second,
246     Tcl/Tk version 8.3.1 is old and getting older (but the new
247     features added in subsequent versions don't make them any more
248     useful for microcontroller work).}
249     \item The source code can be used as the basis for another product.
250     \item The source code for Tcl extensions can be harvested for other
251     purposes. For example, functions to calculate the CRC32
252     are included to support the
253     Tcl/Tk extensions. This code could be harvested for other
254     uses.
255     \end{itemize}
256     \item \textbf{The IjuTools distribution contains useful materials not available
257     anywhere else.} The technical papers and supplemental materials included
258     are genuinely useful for microcontroller software work.
259     \end{itemize}
260    
261     Overall, I hope I've met the aim of assembling and distributing something which is
262     genuinely \emph{useful}.
263    
264    
265     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
266     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
267     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
268     %Section Tag: EPL
269     \section{IjuTools Expansion And Development Plans}
270    
271     Future development of the Iju tool set will focus [only] in the following directions.
272    
273     \begin{itemize}
274     \item \textbf{Removal of any existing Tcl/Tk 8.3.1 bugs.} This is the very
275     highest priority, as any such bugs threaten the usability or
276     logical integrity of the tool.
277     \item \textbf{Development and co-development of new extensions useful in
278     microcontroller work.} Any suggestions that I receive for
279     extensions will be placed on my Web page, and I will attack them as
280     time and expertise permit. I also welcome co-development opportunities,
281     where other parties develop the extensions and I act in a review and
282     integration capacity.
283     \item \textbf{Acquisition of additional software useful in microcontroller work.}
284     I welcome contributions in this area, as well.
285     \item \textbf{Acquisition of additional books, technical papers, books, web links, and
286     other materials.} I welcome contributions in all of these areas. (Please keep in
287     mind that in order for me to distribute any contributed material with the Iju
288     tool set, I must have a letter of permission from the copyright holder.)
289     \end{itemize}
290    
291     One direction that it won't be possible to go with the Iju tool set is enhancement of
292     the Tcl/Tk 8.3.1 core. The Tcl/Tk core is its own complexity, and I'd like to confine
293     any efforts there to correction of existing defects and neatening of the set
294     of source files.
295    
296    
297    
298     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
299     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
300     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
301     \section{Common Parameter Formats}
302     %Section tag: CCL0
303     \label{ctin0:sccl0}
304    
305     \emph{The Iju Tool Set} consists of the following components:
306    
307     \begin{itemize}
308     \item The core of \emph{Tclsh} and \emph{Wish} (the \emph{Tcl}
309     language with \emph{Tk} graphic extensions).
310    
311     \item Extensions to the language, added for utility in microcontroller
312     work or for research purposes.
313    
314     \item A set of DOS command-line utilities.
315     \end{itemize}
316    
317     Each of these components makes heavy use of strings. Since Tcl/Tk is
318     string-based (really, this is the \emph{only} Tcl data type), it is natural
319     to think of each Tcl/Tk command as accepting string arguments. Many of the
320     DOS command-line utilities accept arguments on the command-line which are
321     in exactly the same form as required by a Tcl/Tk extension, and hence
322     it is also useful to think of the DOS command-line utilities as
323     accepting string arguments. For this reason, all string parameter types
324     are documented together in this section.
325    
326     When using Tcl/Tk extensions, the author of the Tcl/Tk script
327     has complete control over how strings are passed to the extension.
328     However, when using the DOS command-line utilities,
329     the DOS/Windows command-line
330     interpreter breaks the command-line into parameters based on the
331     occurence of whitespace (spaces and tabs) on the command line. These
332     parameters are passed to the utility itself as an array of strings.
333     It is possible to cause the command-line interpreter to pass parameters
334     containing whitespace by quoting the parameter. All of the IjuTools
335     command-line utilites will work correctly with whitespace embedded in
336     parameters if it is appropriate for the context (for example, whitespace
337     may be appropriate in a path name but not appropriate within an integer).
338    
339     In this section, each different type of parameter is given a symbolic
340     tag (\texttt{urn}, for example). This symbolic tag is used in the description
341     of Tcl extensions and DOS utilities to denote parameters. In some cases,
342     additional descriptive information is concatenated to the symbolic
343     tag (\texttt{divisor\_urn} or \texttt{urn\_divisor}, for example) to
344     indicate the role the parameter fills.
345    
346    
347     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
348     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
349     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
350     \subsection{\texttt{winfname} Parameter Format}
351     %Section Tag: WNF0
352     \label{ctin0:sccl0:swnf0}
353    
354     \index{winfname@\texttt{winfname}}
355     \texttt{winfname} is used to indicate a file whose name is used only through
356     the Windows operating system (i.e. to open a file, read from a file, etc.). File
357     names are ultimately arbitrated by the underlying operating system, which
358     in the case of any of \emph{The Iju Tool Set} components will always be a variant
359     of Microsoft Windows.
360     A parameter of type \texttt{winfname} may be any file name which Windows
361     will accept.
362    
363     Note in parameters of type \texttt{winfname} that backslashes (`$\backslash$')
364     must normally be used in paths rather than forward slashes
365     (`/').\footnote{Note that this is different than the path conventions in Tcl
366     scripts. The reason for this is that Tcl seeks to be operating system
367     independent, so that the path separator is standardized to be the
368     forward slash.}
369    
370    
371     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
372     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
373     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
374     \subsection{\texttt{tclfname} Parameter Format}
375     %Section Tag: TCF0
376     \label{ctin0:sccl0:stcf0}
377    
378     \index{tclfname@\texttt{tclfname}}
379     \texttt{tclfname} is used to indicate a file name as specified within a Tcl
380     script. This is normally the same as a Windows file name, except that
381     the forward slash rather than the backslash is used as the path separator.
382    
383    
384     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
385     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
386     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
387     \subsection{\texttt{winfpath} Parameter Format}
388     %Section Tag: WFP0
389     \label{ctin0:sccl0:swfp0}
390    
391     \index{winfpath@\texttt{winfpath}}
392     \texttt{winfpath} is used to indicate a directory path in a format
393     acceptable to Microsoft Windows. This means that the path
394     separator is the backslash rather than the forward slash. In nearly all
395     cases the the path name may be specified with or without a trailing backslash.
396    
397    
398     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
399     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
400     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
401     \subsection{\texttt{tclfpath} Parameter Format}
402     %Section Tag: TCF1
403     \label{ctin0:sccl0:stcf1}
404    
405     \index{tclfpath@\texttt{tclfpath}}
406     \texttt{tclfpath} is used to indicate a directory path in a format
407     acceptable inside a Tcl script. This means that the path
408     separator is the forward slash rather than the backslash.
409     In nearly all cases the path name may be specified with or without
410     a trailing forward slash.
411    
412    
413     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
414     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
415     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
416     \subsection{\texttt{uint} Parameter Format}
417     %Section Tag: UIN0
418     \label{ctin0:sccl0:suin0}
419    
420     \index{uint@\texttt{uint}}
421     \texttt{uint} is used to indicate an arbitrarily large unsigned integer
422     (\emph{unsigned} means non-negative). The following formats are accepted:
423    
424     \begin{itemize}
425     \item \emph{A string of digits.} Examples: ``0'', ``342'', ``4912947'', etc.
426     Note in this format that the only acceptable representation of
427     zero is ``0'' (``00'' will not be accepted).
428     \item \emph{A string of digits with commas.} Examples: ``0'',
429     ``342'', ``4,921''. Note that if \emph{any} commas occur
430     in the string of digits, \emph{every} comma must be
431     properly placed. For example, ``49,241,34'' will not be accepted
432     as an integer. In this format, the only acceptable representation
433     of zero is ``0''.
434     \item \emph{An integer expressed as a number in scientific notation.}
435     ``3.14e2'' will be accepted as the integer ``314''. Numbers in
436     scientific notation that do not evaluate to integers, such
437     as ``3.12e1'', will not be accepted.
438     \end{itemize}
439    
440    
441     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
442     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
443     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
444     \subsection{\texttt{sint} Parameter Format}
445     %Section Tag: SIN0
446     \label{ctin0:sccl0:ssin0}
447    
448     \index{sint@\texttt{sint}}
449     \texttt{sint} is used to indicate a signed integer
450     of arbitrary magnitude. (By \emph{signed} we mean
451     that the integer may be negative, zero, or positive.)
452    
453     Any format described for the \emph{uint} parameter format
454     in Section \ref{ctin0:sccl0:suin0} (immediately above)
455     will be accepted, with the relaxation that a minus sign
456     (`-') may be included in front of the integer. As described
457     above, the integer zero may have only one `0' digit.
458     Additionally, the parsing strategies have been relaxed to
459     allow zero to be negated, i.e. ``-0'' is allowed (but
460     ``-00'' is not). \footnote{This parsing relaxation was made to allow for the
461     possibility that some software may output negative numbers
462     close to zero in forms such as ``-0.000e+000''. The
463     permissiveness in the parsing was deliberate.}
464    
465    
466     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
467     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
468     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
469     \subsection{The \texttt{uint8}, \texttt{uint16},
470     \texttt{uint24},
471     \texttt{uint32}, \texttt{uint64}, And
472     \texttt{uint128} Parameter Formats}
473     %Section Tag: UIG0
474     \label{ctin0:sccl0:suig0}
475    
476     \index{uint8@\texttt{uint8}}
477     \index{uint16@\texttt{uint16}}
478     \index{uint24@\texttt{uint24}}
479     \index{uint32@\texttt{uint32}}
480     \index{uint64@\texttt{uint64}}
481     \index{uint128@\texttt{uint128}}
482     The \texttt{uint8}, \texttt{uint16},
483     \texttt{uint32}, \texttt{uint64}, and
484     \texttt{uint128} are unsigned integers with the
485     number of bits implied by the name. Such integers
486     may assume values from 0 through $2^{N} - 1$,
487     where $N$ is the number of bits.
488    
489     For example, a \texttt{uint8} may assume values from
490     0 through 255.
491    
492    
493     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
494     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
495     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
496     \subsection{The \texttt{sint8}, \texttt{sint16},
497     \texttt{sint24},
498     \texttt{sint32}, \texttt{sint64}, And
499     \texttt{sint128} Parameter Formats}
500     %Section Tag: SIG0
501     \label{ctin0:sccl0:ssig0}
502    
503     \index{sint8@\texttt{sint8}}
504     \index{sint16@\texttt{sint16}}
505     \index{sint24@\texttt{sint24}}
506     \index{sint32@\texttt{sint32}}
507     \index{sint64@\texttt{sint64}}
508     \index{sint128@\texttt{sint128}}
509     The \texttt{sint8}, \texttt{sint16},
510     \texttt{sint32}, \texttt{sint64}, and
511     \texttt{sint128} are signed integers with the
512     number of bits implied by the name. Such integers
513     may assume values from $-2^{N-1}$ through $2^{N-1} - 1$,
514     where $N$ is the number of bits.
515    
516     For example, a \texttt{sint8} may assume values from
517     -128 through 127.
518    
519    
520     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
521     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
522     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
523     \subsection{The \texttt{rint8}, \texttt{rint16}, \texttt{rint24},
524     \texttt{rint32}, \texttt{rint64}, And
525     \texttt{rint128} Parameter Formats}
526     %Section Tag: RIG0
527     \label{ctin0:sccl0:srig0}
528    
529     \index{rint8@\texttt{rint8}}
530     \index{rint16@\texttt{rint16}}
531     \index{rint24@\texttt{rint24}}
532     \index{rint32@\texttt{rint32}}
533     \index{rint64@\texttt{rint64}}
534     \index{rint128@\texttt{rint128}}
535     The \texttt{rint8}, \texttt{rint16},
536     \texttt{rint32}, \texttt{rint64}, and
537     \texttt{rint128} are unsigned (i.e. non-negative)
538     integers which do not exceed the maximum positive
539     value that a signed integer of the same size could
540     attain. Such integers may assume values from 0
541     through $2^{N-1} - 1$,
542     where $N$ is the number of bits.
543    
544     For example, a \texttt{rint8} may assume values from
545     0 through 127.
546    
547    
548     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
549     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
550     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
551     \subsection{The \texttt{urn} Parameter Formats}
552     %Section Tag: URN0
553     \label{ctin0:sccl0:surn0}
554    
555     \index{urn@\texttt{urn}}
556     The \texttt{urn} parameter type is a non-negative rational number with
557     non-negative integer components of arbitrary magnitude.
558     There are two ways to specify such a rational
559     number.
560    
561     \begin{enumerate}
562     \item \emph{Integer components, separated by a forward slash.}
563     ``1/3'', ``0/49'', and ``36/1e31'' are acceptable. A denominator
564     of zero is not allowed.
565     \item \emph{A number in scientific notation.} The general accepted
566     form is
567    
568     \texttt{[digs|digs.|.digs|digs.digs][e|E[[+|-]digs]]},
569    
570     where \texttt{digs} represents a series of digits and the
571     vertical bar (`\texttt{|}') separates a string of parameters,
572     only one of which is allowed to appear. Numbers of this
573     type are always rational and will be converted to a rational
574     number for calculation. A unary `+' before the mantissa is allowed.
575     \end{enumerate}
576    
577    
578     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
579     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
580     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
581     \subsection{The \texttt{srn} Parameter Formats}
582     %Section Tag: SRN0
583     \label{ctin0:sccl0:ssrn0}
584    
585     \index{srn@\texttt{srn}}
586     The \texttt{srn} parameter type is a signed arbitrary rational number
587     (by \emph{signed} we mean that it may be negative, zero, or positive).
588     This format is identical to the format
589     described in Section \ref{ctin0:sccl0:surn0}, immediately above,
590     with the relaxation that a unary `-' is allowed to indicate a
591     negative number.
592    
593    
594     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
595     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
596     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
597     \section{A High-Speed Tour Of Tcl And Tk}
598    
599     \subsection{Invoking Tclsh, Wish, IjuScripter, And IjuConsole}
600    
601     \subsection{General Features Of Tcl}
602    
603     \subsection{Statements}
604    
605     \subsection{Procedures}
606    
607     \subsection{The \emph{expr} Command}
608    
609     \subsection{Conditional Control Constructs}
610    
611     \subsection{Looping Constructs}
612    
613     \subsection{File And Console I/O}
614    
615     \subsection{Obtaining Command-Line Arguments}
616    
617     \subsection{A Sample Program}
618    
619    
620     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
621     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
622     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
623     \section{Additional Resources For Learning Tcl And Tk}
624    
625     This chapter has provided a brief tutorial of Tcl and Tk---enough
626     information to begin writing basic scripts which use the microcontroller
627     extensions in IjuTools. However, to use Tcl and Tk in a competent
628     fashion, additional materials and additional study are required.
629    
630    
631    
632    
633     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
634     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
635     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
636     \section{Acknowledgements}
637    
638     What I've called \emph{The Iju Tool Set} would not have been possible in
639     its present form without the outstanding technical work by the engineers
640     at Scriptics, Ajuba Solutions, and Interwoven; plus contributors and
641     newsgroup posters from all over the world. I had discussed with colleagues
642     the possibility of an interpreted language to integrate tools, but I never
643     could have done such a masterful job as Scriptics has done; and I was fortunate
644     to discover Tcl/Tk.
645    
646     For proposing Tcl and Tk as a solution to my particular integration
647     problem, I'm grateful to Les Hatton \cite{bibref:i:leshatton}.
648    
649     For generous
650     technical support from Scriptics/Ajuba/Interwoven, I'm grateful to
651     Jeff Hobbs \cite{bibref:i:jeffreyhobbs}, Dan Kuchler \cite{bibref:i:dankuchler},
652     and John Ousterhout \cite{bibref:i:johnousterhout}.
653     I'm also grateful to all of the newsgroup posters who
654     answered questions and offered suggestions, including
655     but not limited to Jan Nijtmans and Dave Graveaux.
656    
657     For providing a solution (the \emph{mktclapp} program) which allows
658     the construction of a standalone Wish executable without the
659     requirement for external library script files, I'm grateful to
660     D. Richard Hipp \cite{bibref:i:drichardhipp}.
661    
662     For testing installation packages and executables for the
663     Win32 platform and offering
664     prompt and detailed feedback about problems, I'm grateful to
665     Mirza Kolokovic \cite{bibref:i:mirzakolakovic}.
666    
667     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
668     \noindent\begin{figure}[!b]
669     \noindent\rule[-0.25in]{\textwidth}{1pt}
670     \begin{tiny}
671     \begin{verbatim}
672     $RCSfile: c_tin0.tex,v $
673     $Source: /home/dashley/cvsrep/e3ft_gpl01/e3ft_gpl01/dtaipubs/esrgubka/c_tin0/c_tin0.tex,v $
674     $Revision: 1.6 $
675     $Author: dtashley $
676     $Date: 2003/11/03 02:14:24 $
677     \end{verbatim}
678     \end{tiny}
679     \noindent\rule[0.25in]{\textwidth}{1pt}
680     \end{figure}
681    
682     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
683     % $Log: c_tin0.tex,v $
684     % Revision 1.6 2003/11/03 02:14:24 dtashley
685     % All duplicate labels as flagged by LaTeX removed. Additional files added
686     % to Microsoft Visual Studio edit context.
687     %
688     % Revision 1.5 2001/08/18 18:37:56 dtashley
689     % Preparation for v1.05 release.
690     %
691     % Revision 1.4 2001/08/16 19:53:27 dtashley
692     % Beginning to prepare for v1.05 release.
693     %
694     % Revision 1.3 2001/07/30 02:54:17 dtashley
695     % INTFAC extension and command-line utility finished.
696     %
697     % Revision 1.2 2001/07/01 20:42:51 dtashley
698     % Move out of binary mode for use with CVS.
699     %
700     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
701     % $History: c_tin0.tex $
702     %
703     % ***************** Version 4 *****************
704     % User: Dashley1 Date: 1/01/01 Time: 8:13p
705     % Updated in $/uC Software Multi-Volume Book (A)/Chapter, TIN0, Tool Introduction
706     % Edits.
707     %
708     % ***************** Version 3 *****************
709     % User: Dashley1 Date: 12/31/00 Time: 7:42p
710     % Updated in $/uC Software Multi-Volume Book (A)/Chapter, TIN0, Tool Introduction
711     %
712     % ***************** Version 2 *****************
713     % User: Dashley1 Date: 12/22/00 Time: 12:56a
714     % Updated in $/uC Software Multi-Volume Book (A)/Chapter, TIN0, Tool Introduction
715     % Tcl automated method of build refined.
716     %
717     % ***************** Version 1 *****************
718     % User: David Ashley Date: 11/29/00 Time: 5:45p
719     % Created in $/uC Software Multi-Volume Book (A)/Chapter, TIN0, Tool Introduction
720     % Initial check-in.
721     %
722     %End of file C_TIN0.TEX

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