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1 dashley 31 %$Header: /home/dashley/cvsrep/e3ft_gpl01/e3ft_gpl01/webprojs/fboprime/docs/manual/manual.tex,v 1.36 2006/04/10 04:28:07 dashley Exp $
2     %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3     %Notational conventions:
4     % o Software product names are placed in italics (\emph{}), both in
5     % the text and in the index.
6     % o Unix commands are placed in italics (\emph{}).
7     % o Database table names are shown in italics (\emph{}), both in the text and
8     % in the index.
9     % o Database table field names are shown in italics (\emph{}).
10     % o Include file names are shown in Courier-like text (\texttt{}).
11     % o Standalone script names are shown in Courier-like text (\texttt{}).
12     %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
13     \documentclass[letterpaper,10pt,titlepage]{article}
14     %
15     %\pagestyle{headings}
16     %
17     \usepackage{amsmath}
18     \usepackage{amsfonts}
19     \usepackage{amssymb}
20     \usepackage[ansinew]{inputenc}
21     \usepackage[OT1]{fontenc}
22     \usepackage{graphicx}
23     \usepackage{makeidx}
24     %
25     %
26     %Define certain conspicuous global constants.
27     \newcommand{\productbasename}{FBO-Prime}
28     \newcommand{\productversion}{0.1}
29     \newcommand{\productname}{\productbasename{}-\productversion}
30     %
31     %New environments
32     %The following environment is for the glossary of terms at the end.
33     \newenvironment{docglossaryenum}{\begin{list}
34     {}{\setlength{\labelwidth}{0mm}
35     \setlength{\leftmargin}{4mm}
36     \setlength{\itemindent}{-4mm}
37     \setlength{\parsep}{0.85mm}}}
38     {\end{list}}
39     %%
40     %The following environment is for the database table and field
41     %documentation at the end.
42     \newenvironment{docdbtblfielddef}{\begin{list}
43     {}{\setlength{\labelwidth}{0mm}
44     \setlength{\leftmargin}{10mm}
45     \setlength{\itemindent}{-5mm}
46     \setlength{\parsep}{0.85mm}}}
47     {\end{list}}
48     %%
49    
50     %Embarrassingly, I've forgotten why "makeindex" is necessary ...
51     \makeindex
52     %
53     \begin{document}
54     %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
55     %"See" References
56     %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
57     %%%%% M %%%%%
58     \index{Dawn Masternak|see{Masternak, Dawn}}
59     \index{Eric Metzger|see{Metzger, Eric}}
60     \index{Sunhee Metzger|see{Metzger, Sunhee}}
61     %%%%% W %%%%%
62     \index{Theresa Whiting|see{Whiting, Theresa}}
63     \index{Dan Wynja|see{Wynja, Dan}}
64     %-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
65     \title{\emph{\productname{}} Installation, Maintenance, and User Manual}
66     \author{\vspace{1cm}\\David T. Ashley\\\texttt{dta@e3ft.com}\\\vspace{1cm}}
67     \date{\vspace*{8mm}\small{Version Control $ $Revision: 1.36 $ $ \\
68     Version Control $ $Date: 2006/04/10 04:28:07 $ $ (UTC) \\
69     $ $RCSfile: manual.tex,v $ $ \\
70     \LaTeX{} Compilation Date: \today{}}}
71     \maketitle
72    
73     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
74     %Abstract confirmed OK, DTA, 20060304.
75     %
76     \begin{abstract}
77     This document describes in detail
78     the \emph{\productbasename{}} web-based
79     FBO support software, version \productversion{}\@. The
80     document provides substantial technical detail and is suitable
81     for server administrators, webmasters, and users.
82    
83     At present, \emph{\productbasename{}}
84     software provides only web-based resource
85     scheduling (for aircaft, simulators,
86     and flight instructors)\@. However, in the future, it may be enhanced
87     to provide additional functionality for FBOs or
88     to provide support for the aviation community that almost
89     always surrounds an FBO (such as by providing support for various
90     types of aviation associations).
91    
92     The software is designed to run satisfactorily in the environment
93     available through most web hosting companies on a shared
94     Linux server.
95    
96     A single instance of the software has the capability to support only one FBO
97     (and it uses only one \emph{MySQL} database)\@. However, an arbitrary number of
98     instances of the software may be installed on a single server, supporting an
99     arbitrary number of FBOs (with each instance using one \emph{MySQL} database).
100    
101     The software is offered under the GPL, and is free
102     both monetarily and in an intellectual property sense.
103     \end{abstract}
104    
105     \clearpage{}
106     \pagenumbering{roman} %No page number on table of contents.
107     \tableofcontents{}
108     \clearpage{}
109     \listoffigures
110     \clearpage{}
111    
112     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
113     %Force the page number to 1. We don't want to number the table of contents
114     %page.
115     %
116     \setcounter{page}{1}
117     \pagenumbering{arabic}
118     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
119    
120     \section{Introduction, Overview, and Miscellany}
121     \label{siov0}
122    
123     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
124    
125     \subsection{Acknowledgements}
126     \label{siov0:sack0}
127    
128     I am very grateful to all of the following individuals and institutions:
129    
130     \begin{itemize}
131     \item The original authors of
132     \index{ORS@\emph{ORS}}\emph{ORS} \cite{bibref:p:ors},
133     who answered all questions by e-mail and were very supportive in
134     this endeavor. Additionally, the designs of the
135     \emph{\productbasename{}} web pages are heavily borrowed from
136     \emph{ORS}\@. The authors of \emph{ORS} saved me \emph{much} design time in
137     figuring out how to achieve the desired effects with HTML.
138     \item \index{Masternak, Dawn}Dawn
139     Masternak \cite{bibref:i:masternakdawn} for original ideas about
140     reimplementing the website.
141     \item \index{Whiting, Theresa}Theresa Whiting \cite{bibref:i:whitingtheresa}
142     and
143     \index{Wynja, Daniel}Dan Wynja \cite{bibref:i:wynjadaniel}
144     for numerous technical, functionality, and usability
145     observations and suggestions.
146     \item \index{Metzger, Eric}Eric and
147     \index{Metzger, Sunhee} Sunhee Metzger \cite{bibref:i:metzgereric}
148     for allowing me to use the Marshall FBO as a testbed for
149     this software.
150     \item \index{Rostamian, Rouben}Rouben Rostamian \cite{bibref:i:rostamianrouben} for assistance with
151     the simple expression for scheduling interval overlap
152     (see Eq. \ref{eq:stbg0:sdov0:01}, p. \pageref{eq:stbg0:sdov0:01}).
153     \end{itemize}
154    
155     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
156    
157     \subsection{History}
158     \label{siov0:shis0}
159    
160     In 2005, the \index{Marshall Aviation Center}Marshall Aviation Center
161     (hereinafter referred to as \index{MAC}\emph{MAC}) was succeeded by
162     \index{Metzger's Aircraft Services}Metzger's Aircraft Services (hereinafter
163     referred to as \index{MAS}\emph{MAS}) as the FBO at the Marshall,
164     Michigan, USA airport.
165    
166     The web hosting and database development for MAC had been handled by
167     \index{Kalamazoo Software}Kalamazoo Software \cite{bibref:com:kalsoft}\@.
168     \index{Masternak, Dawn}Dawn Masternak \cite{bibref:i:masternakdawn},
169     the office manager at
170     MAC, had been dissatisfied with Kalamazoo Software for these reasons:
171    
172     \begin{itemize}
173     \item The base price of \$99/month for the web presence with a scheduler
174     seemed high.
175     \item Dawn had the subjective impression that MAS was being overbilled
176     for website changes. Her impression was that changes
177     requiring about 1/2 hour of time were typically billed for 1-2 hours.
178     \end{itemize}
179    
180     MAC spent, on average, approximately \$2,000/year for the web presence with
181     aircraft scheduler. For a small
182     business, this is a significant expenditure. It was natural to investigate
183     whether it could be done less expensively.
184    
185     When MAS assumed the FBO in 2005, the arrangement with Kalamazoo Software was
186     discontinued, and MAS hosted the site with
187     \index{Ashley, David}Dave Ashley \cite{bibref:i:ashleydavidt} using
188     \index{ORS@\emph{ORS}}ORS \cite{bibref:p:ors} on an experimental basis.
189    
190     After a period of experimentation, it was determined that ORS would perform
191     satisfactorily. Experimentally, the MAS website was moved to
192     \index{Hagen Hosting}Hagen Hosting \cite{bibref:hagenhostingweb}. After
193     a few weeks of hosting with Hagen Hosting, all user data was lost (and had to
194     be restored by Dave Ashley) twice in one week. Correspondence with
195     Hagen Hosting revealed that HTTP server issues that
196     could not be quickly resolved were the root cause (these issues
197     had caused difficulties for other customers as well). To prevent further hiccups, the MAS
198     website was moved back to Dave Ashley.
199    
200     The nature of the technical hiccups with Hagen Hosting was probably that
201     an HTTPD process was dying unexpectedly. Because ORS works by fully reading
202     and then fully writing files, HTTPD processes that die unexpectedly could result
203     in truncated or incompletely written data files. The file that was damaged
204     when the site was hosted with Hagen Hosting was truncated to zero length twice
205     in one week. The technical design of ORS is sound, but an implementation
206     using a \index{MySQL@\emph{MySQL}}\emph{MySQL}
207     \cite{bibref:c:mysql} database would be more resilient with respect to
208     dying HTTPD processes (and hence might be more reliable on a heavily-loaded server).
209    
210     In January of 2006, the ORS source code was examined in detail by
211     Dave Ashley with the aim of customizing it to provide more user privacy
212     and meet other goals of MAS\@. It was determined that it wasn't a good investment to
213     modify the source code, and instead it was decided to rewrite the resource scheduler
214     from scratch as a \emph{MySQL} implementation.
215     \emph{\productbasename{}} (the software described in this document)
216     is the rewrite.
217    
218    
219     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
220    
221     \subsection{Suboptimal Characteristics of ORS}
222     \label{siov0:ssco0}
223    
224     It was determined (in 2005 and 2006)
225     that ORS \cite{bibref:p:ors}
226     has the following characteristics that make it suboptimal
227     for use by MAS:
228    
229     \begin{enumerate}
230     \item The file-based database implementation is vulnerable to
231     dying HTTPD processes, and may make the product unsuitable for
232     hosting on heavily-loaded servers (which would impede the ability
233     to move the MAS site to a professional web hosting company).
234     \item Performance issues include:
235     \begin{enumerate}
236     \item Scheduler page loads were sometimes noticeably slow,
237     taking several seconds (but at other times taking less
238     than a second).
239     \item The file-based implementation requires that \emph{all}
240     data be read on every page load ($O(N)$ or worse).
241     \item The mutual exclusion mechanism (a lockfile to prevent
242     others processes from reading any scheduler file)
243     has performance disadvantages in a heavy usage environment.
244     \item Regular maintenance (backups, database pruning)
245     is integrated with the page loads. This also
246     contributes to slow page loads.
247     \end{enumerate}
248     \item There may be security issues, as some of the files intended to be
249     PHP include files can be directly executed by forming an appropriate
250     URL\@. It is unclear what attacks may be possible.
251     \item The paradigm of user privacy isn't what MAS desires. It is
252     possible for users to get unnecessary and potentially private
253     information about other users. Specific information that shouldn't be
254     obtainable in the MAS environment includes:
255     \begin{itemize}
256     \item A list of the other users (no relevance to a customer
257     scheduling an airplane, simulator, and/or instructor).
258     \item Identity of person reserving aircraft at various times (no relevance
259     to a person scheduling an airplane, simulator, or instructor).
260     \item Comments included with the reservation (for discovery flights, this often involves
261     names and phone numbers---not relevant to other customers).
262     \end{itemize}
263     \item For members of the line crew working at MAS, the authentication timeout
264     period is too short (as an employee works behind the counter during a
265     business day, they need to authenticate \emph{several} times).
266     \item The way in which the hours of a day's schedule are displayed means that
267     the late night and early morning hours can't be easily viewed. It would
268     be helpful to have scheduling views that are more ``free form'' where:
269     \begin{itemize}
270     \item One can freely scroll forward and backwards in time, without respect
271     to time and calendar boundaries.
272     \item One can freely zoom in and out, obtaining finer and coarser views
273     of scheduling.
274     \end{itemize}
275     \item The calendaring system makes it awkward to move around between dates.
276     It seems that a calendar with one or more months displayed and where one can
277     directly click on a day of interest might be easier to use.
278     \item The display of half-hours is awkward (the ``:30'')\@. A simpler
279     method is to textually display only whole hours but have it clear
280     by the geometry (i.e. where rectangles begin) whether a reservation
281     begins on a whole or half hour.
282     \item Aircraft/simulators and flight instructors have to be scheduled separately, even for
283     a simple instructional appointment.
284     \item The ORS notion of ``hiding'' aircraft a user can't schedule is a good one,
285     but there are those occasions where the user wants to see aircraft they can't
286     schedule, so there needs to be an override available to the user.
287     (Example: maybe a user can't fly a multi-engine aircraft, but they
288     want to get a quick ride somewhere in such an aircraft with a flight instructor.
289     In this case it would help to figure out the availability of the aircraft
290     before making a phone call.)
291     \item Users like \emph{Line}, \emph{Crew}, or \emph{Maint} are awkward (they require a separate
292     account under ORS). Instead, users should always log in as themselves (i.e.
293     authentication tied to the individual, always), and some users should by default have things
294     they schedule appear as a ``pseudo-user'' such as \emph{Line}, \emph{Crew}, or \emph{Maint}.
295     It is also important that they be able to schedule as themselves---this covers the case
296     where a line employee is taking flight lessons, and perhaps other cases as well.
297     \item Storing passwords in the clear is ill-advised. The more modern way of thinking
298     is hashed storage with password test and reset ability only.
299     \item ORS isn't the right framework for expansion to meet the other needs
300     of MAS (such as electronic maintenance of student training records,
301     support of other aviation organizations associated with the FBO, etc.).
302     \end{enumerate}
303    
304    
305     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
306    
307     \subsection{Software and Documentation License}
308     \label{siov0:slic0}
309    
310     The \emph{\productbasename{}} software and all associated documentation
311     (including this document)
312     is licensed under the
313     \index{GNU Public License (GPL)}GNU Public License \cite{bibref:gnuorgweb}.
314     The software is free both in a monetary and in an intellectual property sense.
315    
316     Please note that the GPL may impose the requirement that if the source code
317     is modified, the modifications be made available publicly.
318    
319    
320     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
321    
322     \subsection{Obtaining the Software}
323     \label{siov0:sosw0}
324    
325     The software is viewable via \emph{ViewCVS}, and
326     later the server will be set up to make nightly tarballs of the tip of the
327     CVS archives and perhaps also to allow anonymous CVS
328     access. This will be finalized when the software is more mature.
329    
330    
331     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
332    
333     \subsection{Requesting Changes to this Document}
334     \label{siov0:scdo0}
335    
336     I'm very sensitive to issues of readability, organization,
337     and indexing.
338    
339     Please forward suggestions for simple changes
340     (typographical mistakes, grammar issues, indexing issues, etc.)
341     to me (Dave Ashley \cite{bibref:i:ashleydavidt}).
342    
343     For more complex changes or enhancements
344     (such as the rewrite or addition of a paragraph or section),
345     you might consider
346     modifying the \LaTeX{} source code directly and e-mailing me the entire document
347     or the rewritten/added section. (There is, of course, a small possibility that I
348     would reject a change---so advance coordination about the proposed
349     changes would be prudent.)
350    
351     This document is maintained under a version control system (note the revision
352     information on the title page), so changes are very easy to accommodate.
353    
354    
355     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
356    
357     \subsection{Feature Wish List}
358     \label{siov0:sfwl0}
359    
360     The following features will be incorporated
361     in future releases of \emph{\productbasename{}}:
362    
363     \begin{enumerate}
364     \item \textbf{Demonstration mode:}
365     a configuration constant that will allow the software to be
366     run on a demonstration website to demonstrate its capabilities.
367     Demonstration mode would include login without authentication
368     and automatic periodic purge of data.
369     \end{enumerate}
370    
371     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
372    
373     \subsection{Software Recommendations}
374     \label{siov0:ssrc0}
375    
376     TBD\@. (This section is reserved for recommendations concerning software
377     an FBO might use to maintain a website.)
378    
379     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
380    
381     \subsection{Hosting Company Recommendations}
382     \label{siov0:shrc0}
383    
384     TBD\@. (This section is reserved for recommendations for hosting companies
385     that provide hosting plans and equipment known to work well with \emph{\productbasename{}}.)
386    
387     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
388    
389     \section{Theory of Operation, Installation, and Maintenance}
390     \label{sins0}
391    
392     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
393    
394     \subsection{Theory of Operation}
395     \label{sins0:sots0}
396    
397     Logically, the server source code is composed of three components:
398    
399     \begin{itemize}
400     \item A set of PHP scripts that are executed in response
401     to HTTP requests (described in
402     \S{}\ref{swpg0}, p. \pageref{swpg0}). These files all reside in the same directory
403     of an \emph{Apache} \emph{DocumentRoot} or are \emph{Alias}'d or
404     \emph{ScriptAlias}'d into the \emph{Apache} namespace.
405    
406     All of these files have the extension \emph{.php}.
407     \item A set of PHP library files that are included
408     and used by the \emph{.php} files
409     (described in \S{}\ref{sphl0}, p. \pageref{sphl0}).
410    
411     All of these files have the extension \emph{.inc}.
412     \item A set of standalone PHP utility scripts that can be executed
413     to perform various utility functions
414     (described in \S{}\ref{ssas0}, p. \pageref{ssas0}). These
415     scripts are designed to be executed from a shell or a cron job.
416    
417     These utility scripts
418     can be located anywhere except where they can be
419     executed in response to HTTP requests, but the recommended location
420     is with the PHP library files.
421    
422     All of these utility scripts have the extension \emph{.php}.
423     \end{itemize}
424    
425     The \emph{\productbasename{}} software works in the following way:
426    
427     \begin{itemize}
428     \item Some \emph{.php} scripts
429     (\S{}\ref{swpg0})
430     are executed in response to web
431     visits. These \emph{.php} scripts allow users and
432     administrators to view and modify user and scheduling
433     information using a web browser.
434     \item Some utility \emph{.php} scripts
435     (\S{}\ref{ssas0})
436     are executed periodically
437     by the *nix system, normally via \emph{cron}.
438     These scripts perform database maintenance
439     and promote standby reservations.
440     \item Some utility \emph{.php} scripts
441     (\S{}\ref{ssas0})
442     are manually executed in special
443     circumstances (for example, to
444     initialize the database or if an administrator password is lost).
445     \item All \emph{.php} scripts may include \emph{.inc} files
446     (\S{}\ref{sphl0})
447     in the PHP library. (These include files are shared
448     between all PHP scripts, and provide a way to localize functionality
449     so that changes need to be made in only one place.)
450     \item All \emph{.php} scripts may interact with the
451     \emph{MySQL} server (by executing SQL queries)
452     in order to store, modify, and retrieve user and scheduling
453     information.
454     \end{itemize}
455    
456     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
457    
458     \subsection{Administrator Requirements}
459     \label{sins0:sarq0}
460    
461     The instructions in this document assume that the individual attempting to install
462     \emph{\productbasename{}} has solid Unix administration skills. The individual
463     attempting to install \emph{\productbasename{}} must have these skills:
464    
465     \begin{itemize}
466     \item An understanding of Unix file and directory permissions, including:
467     \begin{itemize}
468     \item \index{UID}UID,
469     \index{GID}GID, and the standard Unix file and directory permission bits.
470     \item \index{chmod@\emph{chmod}}\emph{chmod},
471     \index{chown@\emph{chown}}\emph{chown}, and other commands used to modify
472     Unix file and directory permission bits.
473     \end{itemize}
474     \item An understanding of standard Unix commands, including
475     \index{cp@\emph{cp}}\emph{cp},
476     \index{mv@\emph{mv}}\emph{mv},
477     \index{rm@\emph{rm}}\emph{rm}, and
478     \index{tar@\emph{tar}}\emph{tar}.
479     \item An rudimentary understanding of how dynamic web content is generated and served,
480     including \index{Apache@\emph{Apache}}\emph{Apache}.
481     \item A rudimentary understanding \index{SQL}\emph{SQL} and \emph{MySQL}.
482     \end{itemize}
483    
484     Attaining competence in Unix sufficient to install
485     \emph{\productbasename{}} is not trivial, especially if one has no experience
486     with Unix systems.
487    
488     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
489    
490     \subsection{Server System Requirements}
491     \label{sins0:ssyr0}
492    
493     In order to run the \emph{\productname{}} software, the
494     \index{server requirements}server must meet the
495     following specifications.
496    
497     \begin{itemize}
498     \item \emph{Linux} (necessary version uncertain).
499     \item \emph{Apache} (necessary version uncertain).
500     \item \emph{MySQL} (necessary version uncertain).
501     \item \emph{PHP} (necessary version uncertain).
502     \item The server must be configured so that \emph{cron} jobs can
503     be run.
504     \end{itemize}
505    
506     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
507    
508     \subsection{Server Software Installation Instructions}
509     \label{sins0:sssi0}
510    
511     This section contains precise instructions for installing the
512     \emph{\productbasename{}} software on a server. The server must meet the
513     requirements in \S{}\ref{sins0:ssyr0}.
514    
515     The steps in installing the \emph{\productbasename{}}
516     software are:
517    
518     \begin{enumerate}
519     \item Choose the path where the \emph{PHP} web files,
520     \emph{PHP} library files, and web graphics will
521     be placed (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:spwg0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:spwg0}).
522     \item Set up the \emph{MySQL} database software
523     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:smsq0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:smsq0}).
524     \item Set up the \emph{Apache} web server software
525     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sapc0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sapc0}).
526     \item Unpack the \emph{\productbasename{}} software
527     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:susc0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:susc0}).
528     \item Generate the \emph{\productbasename{}} hash key
529     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sgsh0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sgsh0}).
530     \item Customize the PHP library include path
531     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sphl0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sphl0}).
532     \item Customize the web page script include path
533     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:scwp0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:scwp0}).
534     \item Customize the \emph{MySQL} database access constants
535     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sdac0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sdac0}).
536     \item Initialize the \emph{MySQL} database
537     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sdin0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sdin0}).
538     \item Perform the functionality tests
539     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sftt0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sftt0}).
540     \item Customize the default FBO information
541     (\S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:scdf0}, p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:scdf0}).
542     \end{enumerate}
543    
544     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
545    
546     \subsubsection{Choice of PHP Source File, PHP Library, and Graphics Paths}
547     \label{sins0:sssi0:spwg0}
548    
549     Server environments vary considerably. For example:
550    
551     \begin{itemize}
552     \item On a server owned by the FBO, there is generally full freedom
553     in locating files (such as
554     \index{PHP library}PHP library files).
555     \item On a server owned by a web hosting company, there is generally
556     very little freedom in locating files (such as PHP library files).
557     Typically, all locations are specified by the web hosting company.
558     \end{itemize}
559    
560     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
561    
562     \paragraph{PHP Source File Path}
563    
564     First, choose where to locate the PHP source files (these are the files that
565     are executed in response to HTTP requests---see \S{}\ref{swpg0}, \pageref{swpg0}), and record this choice to use
566     in later installtion steps. All of the files identified in \S{}\ref{swpg0} must be located in the
567     same directory.
568    
569     For an FBO with website \texttt{http://myfbo.com}, a typical choice for a URL
570     to access the flight scheduler would be\\\\
571     \texttt{http://myfbo.com/flightschedule}.\\\\
572     This URL has associated with it a path on the server (usually, below the
573     Apache
574     \index{Apache@\emph{Apache}!DocumentRoot directive@\emph{DocumentRoot} directive}%
575     \index{DocumentRoot (Apache directive)@\emph{DocumentRoot} (Apache directive)}\emph{DocumentRoot}).
576     In this case, the server directory to contain the PHP source code should be chosen and created;
577     permissions should be checked to ensure that the Apache server
578     can read the files; and the choice should be recorded for later installation steps.
579    
580     A second common choice is to locate the flight scheduler at a URL of the form
581     \texttt{http://flightschedule.myfbo.com}. The mechanics of setting up DNS and
582     Apache are not discussed here. If you are an inexperienced Unix administrator,
583     I recommend that you make the simpler choice described in the paragraph above.
584    
585     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
586    
587     \paragraph{PHP Library Path}
588    
589     The PHP library path is the path where the PHP interpreter searches for
590     files specified in the PHP \emph{include()} and \emph{require()} commands.
591    
592     The likely PHP library path chosen varies depending on whether the server is
593     owned.
594    
595     For an server owned by the FBO, a typical choice is to place the library include files
596     in a subdirectory of the path specified in the \emph{php.ini} file.
597    
598     For a server owned by a hosting company, a typical choice is anywhere not
599     aliased into Apache's URL space.\footnote{In other words, web clients should not be able to
600     choose a URL so as to point to the PHP library files.}
601    
602     This choice should be made, the directory should be created, and permissions should be set
603     so that Apache can read but not modify the files, and the choice should be recorded.
604    
605     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
606    
607     \paragraph{Graphics File Path}
608    
609     \emph{\productbasename{}} has some graphics (logos, arrows, icons, etc.) that must be
610     loadable by a browser. These files must all be together in the same directory.
611    
612     A typical choice for a location for these graphics is\\\\
613     \texttt{http://myfbo.com/fboprimegraphics}.\\\\
614    
615     The necessary directory should be created on the server, permissions should be set appropriately,
616     and the base URL of the graphics should be recorded.
617    
618     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
619    
620     \subsubsection{\emph{MySQL} Database Setup}
621     \label{sins0:sssi0:smsq0}
622    
623     Setup of \index{MySQL@\emph{MySQL}!Setup for \productbasename{}@Setup for \emph{\productbasename{}}}%
624     \emph{MySQL} involves obtaining a database name,
625     userid, and password. (This is the only information
626     required to set up \emph{\productbasename{}}---creation of
627     database tables is handled by a script.)
628    
629     The steps to set up \emph{MySQL} depend on how the software
630     is hosted.
631    
632     \begin{itemize}
633     \item If the software is hosted by a hosting company, the
634     \emph{MySQL} database name, userid, and password will probably
635     be assigned by the hosting company.
636     \item If the software is hosted on an owned or dedicated server,
637     the setup must be performed by the individual
638     installing \emph{\productbasename{}}.
639     \end{itemize}
640    
641     If the software is hosted on an owned or dedicated server,
642     the following steps should be used to set up \emph{MySQL}:
643    
644     \begin{enumerate}
645     \item Choose a database name, userid, and password
646     for use with \emph{MySQL}. In subsequent description, these
647     are denoted \emph{dbname}, \emph{userid},
648     and \emph{password}.
649     \item Log into \emph{MySQL} as the root user.\footnote{Note that the
650     \emph{root} password for \emph{MySQL} is not the same
651     thing as the \emph{root} user password for \emph{Linux}.}
652     The command to do this is:
653    
654     \texttt{mysql --user=root -p}
655     \item Create the database. The \emph{MySQL} command to do this is:
656    
657     \texttt{create database \emph{dbname};}
658     \item Grant the user \emph{userid} all privileges on database
659     \emph{dbname} using password \emph{password} when connecting
660     from \emph{localhost}.\footnote{The normal arrangement is that the
661     \emph{MySQL} daemon runs on the same server as \emph{Apache}, hence
662     the connection from \emph{localhost}.} The command to do this is:
663    
664     \texttt{grant all on \emph{dbname}.* to \emph{userid}@localhost\\identified by '\emph{password}';}
665     \item Log out of \emph{MySQL} (Control-D).
666     \item Test the permissions created by running
667    
668     \texttt{mysql --user=\emph{userid} -p}
669    
670     and entering the \emph{password} chosen. Issue the command:
671    
672     \texttt{use database \emph{dbname};}
673    
674     to verify permission to access \emph{dbname}.
675     \item Log out of \emph{MySQL} (Control-D).
676     \end{enumerate}
677    
678     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
679    
680     \subsubsection{\emph{Apache} Setup}
681     \label{sins0:sssi0:sapc0}
682    
683     \index{Apache@\emph{Apache}!Setup for \productbasename{}@Setup for \emph{\productbasename{}}}%
684     As with \emph{MySQL}, the setup of \emph{Apache} is more complex
685     for an owned or dedicated server. Details TBD.
686    
687    
688     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
689    
690     \subsubsection{Unpacking of \emph{\productbasename{}} Source Code}
691     \label{sins0:sssi0:susc0}
692    
693     TBD.
694    
695     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
696    
697     \subsubsection{Generation of \emph{\productname{}} Hash Key}
698     \label{sins0:sssi0:sgsh0}
699    
700     The \emph{\productbasename{}} hash key must be defined in a file in the
701     PHP library named \emph{sitehashkey.inc}.
702    
703     The \index{sitehashkeygen.php@\emph{sitehashkeygen.php}}\texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
704     script (\S{}\ref{ssas0:shkg0}, p. \pageref{ssas0:shkg0}) should
705     be used to generate this file automatically.
706    
707     Simply execute the \texttt{sitehashkeygen.php} script with the path to the
708     PHP library as the only parameter, then review
709     permissions on the \emph{sitehashkey.inc} file for appropriateness.
710    
711     It would also be possible to generate the \emph{sitehashkey.inc}
712     file manually (although there should be no reason to do this).
713     The recommended approach would be to replicate the file contents
714     shown in Figure \ref{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00} (p. \pageref{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00}),
715     but with the key chosen randomly (perhaps by
716     typing random keystrokes in the text editor).
717    
718     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
719    
720     \subsubsection{Customization of Include Path in PHP Library Files}
721     \label{sins0:sssi0:sphl0}
722    
723     TBD.
724    
725     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
726    
727     \subsubsection{Customization of Include Path in Web Pages}
728     \label{sins0:sssi0:scwp0}
729    
730     TBD.
731    
732     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
733    
734     \subsubsection{Customization of \emph{MySQL} Database Access Constants}
735     \label{sins0:sssi0:sdac0}
736    
737     TBD.
738    
739     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
740    
741     \subsubsection{Database Initialization}
742     \label{sins0:sssi0:sdin0}
743    
744     TBD.
745    
746     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
747    
748     \subsubsection{Functionality Tests}
749     \label{sins0:sssi0:sftt0}
750    
751     TBD.
752    
753     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
754    
755     \subsubsection{Customization of Default FBO Information}
756     \label{sins0:sssi0:scdf0}
757    
758     TBD.
759    
760     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
761    
762     \subsection{Maintenance and Other Procedures}
763     \label{sins0:smpr0}
764    
765     This section contains the precise instructions for installing the
766     \emph{\productname{}} software on a server. The server must meet the
767     requirements in \S{}\ref{sins0:ssyr0}.
768    
769     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
770    
771     \subsubsection{Backing Up \emph{MySQL} Database Contents}
772     \label{sins0:smpr0:sbak0}
773    
774     TBD.
775    
776     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
777    
778     \subsubsection{Backing Up FBO Web Content}
779     \label{sins0:smpr0:sbak1}
780    
781     TBD.
782    
783     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
784    
785     \subsubsection{Restoring \emph{MySQL} Database Contents}
786     \label{sins0:smpr0:sres0}
787    
788     TBD.
789    
790     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
791    
792     \subsubsection{Restoring FBO Web Content}
793     \label{sins0:smpr0:sres1}
794    
795     TBD.
796    
797     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
798    
799     \subsubsection{Upgrading to a Newer Version of \emph{\productbasename{}}}
800     \label{sins0:smpr0:sugd0}
801    
802     TBD.
803    
804     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
805    
806     \section{Technical Background}
807     \label{stbg0}
808    
809     This section provides technical background that may be useful in understanding
810     the \emph{\productbasename{}} software.
811    
812    
813     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
814    
815     \subsection{The Site Hash Key}
816     \label{stbg0:sshk0}
817    
818     \index{site hash key}In order to provide security for hashed passwords, session identifiers,
819     and other constructs, the
820     \emph{\productbasename{}} software must have available a string (or equivalently, a number)
821     that is not available to non-administrative users of the software. This string
822     is called the \emph{site hash key}.
823    
824     It is most convenient to generate the site hash key using the \texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
825     script, described in \S{}\ref{ssas0:shkg0}, p. \pageref{ssas0:shkg0}.
826    
827     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
828    
829     \subsection{The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm}
830     \label{stbg0:smdf0}
831    
832     \index{MD5 message digest algorithm}The MD5 message digest algorithm
833     \cite{bibref:rfc1321} is a cryptographic hash algorithm. The most important
834     properties of the algorithm are described in the executive summary of
835     \cite{bibref:rfc1321}:
836    
837     \begin{quote}
838     \emph{This document describes the MD5 message-digest algorithm. The
839     algorithm takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces
840     as output a 128-bit ``fingerprint'' or ``message digest'' of the input.
841     It is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce
842     two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any
843     message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD5
844     algorithm is intended for digital signature applications, where a
845     large file must be ``compressed'' in a secure manner before being
846     encrypted with a private (secret) key under a public-key cryptosystem
847     such as RSA.}
848     \end{quote}
849    
850     The statement that ``\emph{it is computationally infeasible to produce
851     two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any message having
852     a given prespecified target message digest}'' means
853     that it is conjectured infeasible to ``work backwards'' from
854     a message digest to a message having that digest except by generating
855     random messages. Even by generating random messages and
856     evaluating their MD5 message digest at the rate of a billion ($10^9$) messages
857     per second (an unattainable rate on a single computing platform), the expected time
858     to find a message with a prespecified message digest is 5 trillion billion years.
859    
860     The MD5 message digest function is ``one-way'' in that it is very inexpensive to
861     find the MD5 message digest given a message, but intractable to find a viable message
862     given its MD5.
863    
864    
865     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
866    
867     \subsection{\emph{\productbasename{}} Cryptographic Hash Functions}
868     \label{stbg0:sfch0}
869    
870     The \emph{\productbasename{}} software provides a cryptographic hash function
871     used extensively in the software and denoted
872     the \index{site hash function}\emph{site hash function} or \index{SHF}\emph{SHF}\@.
873     The SHF function maps from an arbitrary number
874     of input strings to
875     an MD5 message digest.
876    
877     The SHF is designed so that a potential attacker
878     cannot determine the MD5 message digest that would be generated from
879     a set of input strings. In order to accomplish this behavior,
880     the input strings are ``mixed'' with the
881     \index{site hash key} before the MD5 message digest is calculated.
882     If $s_i$ denotes the $i$th input string, $n$ denotes the number of
883     input strings, $h$ denotes the site hash key,
884     and ``$+$'' denotes string concatenation, the hash function used is
885    
886     \begin{eqnarray}
887     \nonumber
888     & SHF(s_1, s_2, s_3, \ldots{}, s_n)& \\
889     \label{eq:stbg0:sfch0:00}
890     & = & \\
891     \nonumber
892     & MD5(h + s_1 + h + s_2 + h + s_3 + \ldots{} + s_n + h) . &
893     \end{eqnarray}
894    
895     Note that given the input strings $s_1 \ldots{} s_n$, an attacker
896     cannot predict $SHF(s_1 \ldots{} s_n)$ without
897     knowledge of the site hash key. Note also that an attacker cannot deduce
898     the site hash key by observing a number of sets of strings and the
899     corresponding $SHF()$ output.
900    
901     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
902    
903     \subsection{Password Storage}
904     \label{stbg0:spst0}
905    
906     \index{password}Although unsafe computing practice, it is anticipated that
907     some users will use the same passwords for \emph{\productbasename{}}
908     as they use for other systems (such as e-mail and banking). It is unwise
909     to store \emph{\productbasename{}} passwords on the server in the clear,
910     in case the server is compromised or in the case of misconduct by
911     employees of the FBO or the hosting company.
912    
913     Current doctrine with respect to password storage is:
914    
915     \begin{itemize}
916     \item Passwords should not be stored on the server. Instead,
917     only cryptographic hashes of the passwords should be stored.
918     \item \index{salt}``Salt''\footnote{Some element of uncontrollability or randomness.} should be applied to
919     cryptographic hash generation. Without salt, two negative
920     circumstances are possible:
921     \begin{itemize}
922     \item It may be possible to determine if two users have the same password
923     (because the stored cryptographic hashes are identical).
924     \item Dictionary attacks may become easier. (Salt makes dictionaries
925     difficult to build.)
926     \end{itemize}
927     \item It should not be technically possible to view passwords.
928     \item Users and administrators should only be able to verify and
929     reset passwords (never to view them).
930     \end{itemize}
931    
932     The algorithm used for password storage in \emph{\productbasename{}} is:
933    
934     \begin{itemize}
935     \item When a user account is created, an SGUID and other
936     random elements are used to create 128 bits of ``salt''. This salt
937     is stored with the user record.
938     \item The password information stored is the SHF of
939     the user's salt and the password.
940     \end{itemize}
941    
942     In order for an attacker to glean information about a user's password
943     based on information stored on the server:
944    
945     \begin{itemize}
946     \item The site hash key would need to be compromised.
947     \item The user's salt would need to be compromised.
948     \item Even with the two previous conditions met, the only attack possible
949     is a dictionary attack.\footnote{The dictionary database could not be
950     built until the site hash key and user's salt were compromised. Additionally:
951     \begin{itemize}
952     \item Due to the salt, the dictionary would apply to only one user.
953     \item It would not be possible to determine whether two users
954     have the same password.
955     \end{itemize}}
956     \end{itemize}
957    
958     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
959    
960     \subsection{Unix Time vs. Scheduling Time}
961     \label{stbg0:sutv0}
962    
963     Traditionally, time in Unix systems has been represented as integer seconds since
964     the \index{Unix epoch}\index{epoch}Unix epoch, where the Unix epoch is defined as
965     00:00:00 \index{UTC}UTC on January 1, 1970. Unix systems overall perform well,
966     but there are occasional glitches---for example, a carelessly-written Unix
967     \emph{cron} job might run twice or not at all as \index{daylight savings time}daylight
968     savings time comes or goes.
969    
970     Note that traditional Unix time does not include the notion of daylight savings time.
971     UTC is never adjusted in this way. Only the offset of local time
972     with respect to UTC changes.
973    
974     It would be possible to have the resource scheduler use the traditional
975     Unix time. There would be two disadvantages to such an approach:
976    
977     \begin{enumerate}
978     \item GET and POST parameters would not be human-friendly (making debugging
979     more difficult).
980     \item There would be complexity in handling reservations near the transitions
981     to and from daylight savings time.
982     \end{enumerate}
983    
984     For these reasons, this software uses two time schemes:
985    
986     \begin{itemize}
987     \item For \index{SGUID}SGUIDs
988     (\S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sgui0}, p. \pageref{stdd0:sdty0:sgui0})
989     and other special purposes where only time ordering is required, the software uses
990     traditional Unix time.
991     \item For reservation scheduling
992     (see \index{STIME}STIME, \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:stim0}, p. \pageref{stdd0:sdty0:stim0}),
993     an abstract representation of local time is used. This abstract
994     representation does not consider daylight savings time.
995     \end{itemize}
996    
997     In behavior, the scheduler resembles a large piece of paper with many
998     squares. There is no allowance made for the extra hour or missing hour
999     that accompany daylight savings time. This means that reservations
1000     spanning the transition may be longer or shorter by one hour than the
1001     scheduler calculates. In practice, this is not likely to be a problem, as
1002     very few pilots fly a rental plane at 2 a.m.
1003    
1004     The Unix notion of time and the scheduler's notion of time intersect at these places:
1005    
1006     \begin{itemize}
1007     \item The time and date displayed by the scheduler as the current time and date.
1008     \item Time of day and date assumed for deciding which calendar day and which portion of the day to
1009     display.
1010     \item Time of day used for deciding if a user is trying to schedule or cancel a reservation
1011     too close to the time of the reservation.
1012     \end{itemize}
1013    
1014     It is anticipated that this software may be run on a server not in the same
1015     \index{locale (time)}locale
1016     as the FBO. For this reason, the software can be customized to
1017     use as the current time either:
1018    
1019     \begin{itemize}
1020     \item The server local time with an optional offset.
1021     \item UTC (GMT) time with an optional offset.
1022     \end{itemize}
1023    
1024     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1025    
1026     \subsection{Time Interval Conventions}
1027     \label{stbg0:stic0}
1028    
1029     The \emph{\productbasename{}} software deals extensively
1030     with \index{time interval}time intervals.
1031     It is useful---and it prevents mistakes---to have
1032     a formal definition of what is intended by an interval.
1033    
1034     For example, if \emph{Student A} reserves an airplane from 2 p.m. to
1035     3 p.m., and \emph{Student B} reserves the same airplane from 3 p.m. to
1036     4 p.m., which student has the airplane at exactly 3 p.m.?\footnote{Answer:
1037     \emph{Student B}, and the rationale follows.}
1038    
1039     The convention used in the \emph{\productbasename{}} software
1040     is that reservation intervals are
1041     \index{closed interval}\index{interval!closed}closed on the left and
1042     \index{open interval}\index{interval!open}open
1043     on the right, that is, a scheduling interval from $t_0$ to
1044     $t_1$ encompasses all values or time $t$ such that
1045    
1046     \begin{equation}
1047     t \in [ t_0, t_1),
1048     \end{equation}
1049    
1050     \noindent{}or, equivalently but using different notation,
1051    
1052     \begin{equation}
1053     t_0 \leq t < t_1 .
1054     \end{equation}
1055    
1056     At first glance, it may seem frivolous to pay so much attention to
1057     this definition. However, in the formation of SQL queries and in definitions
1058     such as \emph{adjacency} or \emph{overlap}, uncertain definitions lead to
1059     software with uncertain behavior.
1060    
1061    
1062     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1063    
1064     \subsection{Definition of Overlapping Intervals}
1065     \label{stbg0:sdov0}
1066    
1067     \index{overlapping intervals}\index{interval!operlapping}Two time intervals
1068    
1069     \begin{equation}
1070     \label{eq:stbg0:sdov0:000}
1071     \overline{c} = [c_0, c_1)
1072     \end{equation}
1073    
1074     \noindent{}and
1075    
1076     \begin{equation}
1077     \label{eq:stbg0:sdov0:0000}
1078     \overline{w} = [w_0, w_1)
1079     \end{equation}
1080    
1081     \noindent{}overlap if there can be found some value of time $t$ which
1082     is in both intervals, i.e.
1083    
1084     \begin{equation}
1085     \label{eq:stbg0:sdov0:00}
1086     \exists t : t \in \overline{c} \wedge t \in \overline{w} .
1087     \end{equation}
1088    
1089     It can be shown that a simple test\footnote{Thanks to
1090     Rouben Rostamian \cite{bibref:i:rostamianrouben}
1091     for his post to the \texttt{sci.math} newsgroup containing this
1092     expression.} for
1093     overlap is
1094    
1095     \begin{equation}
1096     \label{eq:stbg0:sdov0:01}
1097     (c_0 < y_1) \wedge (y_0 < c_1) .
1098     \end{equation}
1099    
1100     It is also possible and potentially desirable to generalize the
1101     notion of a reservation to include
1102     \index{reservations!zero-length}zero-length reservations where
1103     $t_0 = t_1$. If this is done, we must accept
1104     the $t_0=t_1$ case as an idiom for $[t_0, t_1]$\footnote{Rather
1105     than for $[t_0, t_1)$, which wouldn't make sense with $t_0=t_1$}.
1106     In this case, the notion of overlap presented
1107     in (\ref{eq:stbg0:sdov0:00}) can still be applied. It is believed
1108     that the simplest expression for overlap of two potentially
1109     zero-length reservations is
1110    
1111     \begin{equation}
1112     \label{eq:stbg0:sdov0:02}
1113     ((c_0 < y_1) \wedge (y_0 < c_1)) \vee (c_0 = y_0) .
1114     \end{equation}
1115    
1116     No special results have been obtained for evaluating more than two intervals for
1117     overlap.
1118    
1119    
1120     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1121    
1122     \subsection[\mbox{\protect$O(\log N)$}, \mbox{\protect$O(N)$}, and \mbox{\protect$O(N^2)$}]
1123     {\mbox{\protect\boldmath$O(\log N)$},
1124     \mbox{\protect\boldmath$O(N)$}, and \mbox{\protect\boldmath$O(N^2)$}}
1125     \label{stbg0:sonn0}
1126    
1127     \index{O() notation@$O()$ notation}``$O()$''
1128     notation comes from computer science, and denotes an upper bound
1129     on the number of steps required to perform a calculation or to execute
1130     an algorithm (such as a database search algorithm)\@. In this context, $N$ is
1131     used to denote some parameter that can be varied to represent more difficulty,
1132     such as more records in a database or more records to sort.
1133    
1134     In designing the \emph{\productbasename{}} software, it is natural to be
1135     concerned with the performance of the software as the number of records
1136     (users, resources, reservations) increases. This is especially relevant
1137     because ORS had performance problems.
1138    
1139     The nature of an $O(N)$ algorithm is easiest to comprehend.
1140     An $O(N)$ algorithm is normally an algorithm where a fixed amount of processing
1141     is performed for each of $N$ items. For example, reading $N$ items from a file
1142     tends to be an $O(N)$ operation. If it takes one second for a computer to
1143     read 1,000 items, it might be reasonable to expect it to take two seconds
1144     to read 2,000 items.
1145    
1146     An $O(\log N)$ operation is an operation where the time to complete
1147     the operation varies roughly as the logarithm of the number of elements.
1148     For example, if it takes one second for a computer to perform an operation
1149     on 10 elements and two seconds on 100 elements; it might be reasonable to
1150     expect it to take three seconds on 1000 elements.\footnote{$\log 10 = 1$,
1151     $\log 100 = 2$, and $\log 1000 = 3$.}
1152    
1153     An $O(N^2)$ is an operation where the time to complete the operation varies roughly
1154     as the square of the number of elements. For example, if it takes one second for
1155     a computer to perform an operation on 10 elements, it would be reasonable to expect
1156     it to take four seconds on 20 elements and nine seconds on 30 elements.
1157    
1158     Note that $O(N^2)$ operations are frequently created (usually accidentally!) by
1159     nested loops over data, such as occur in the classic rock/bubble sorts.
1160     $O(N^2)$ algorithms are \emph{extremely} undesirable.
1161    
1162     It is easy to see that $O(\log N)$ algorithms are more
1163     desirable than $O(N)$ algorithms, which are in
1164     turn more desirable than $O(N^2)$ algorithms.
1165    
1166     The goal in designing the database for \emph{\productbasename{}} is to ensure as much
1167     as possible that all database queries require $O(\log N)$ time to execute, rather
1168     than $O(N)$ or $O(N^2)$ time.
1169    
1170     $O(\log N)$ behavior is in general achieved by defining the fields used in important
1171     queries to be
1172     \index{key field}\index{MySQL@\emph{MySQL}!key field}\emph{key} fields.
1173     Definition as a key field has two effects on
1174     the behavior of database queries:
1175    
1176     \begin{itemize}
1177     \item Queries involving equalities or inequalities of the key field become
1178     $O(\log N)$ rather than $O(N)$.
1179     \item Database insertions require somewhat more time (because of the overhead
1180     of maintaining special indexes or trees that assist in searching).
1181     \end{itemize}
1182    
1183     As an example of a critical query, consider a user who is browsing airplane
1184     scheduling information. In order to allow the scheduling information to be quickly
1185     displayed,
1186     \emph{MySQL} must be able to quickly locate the scheduling records that
1187     correspond to the airplane and the time period being viewed. For this reason,
1188     database table fields identifying the airplane
1189     and the start and end of the reservation are
1190     key fields.
1191    
1192     Comments and explanations involving $O()$ notation are found throughout the
1193     \emph{\productbasename{}} source code and throughout this document.
1194    
1195    
1196     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1197    
1198     \subsection[\mbox{\protect$1\leftrightarrow{}1$},
1199     \mbox{\protect$1\leftrightarrow{}\infty{}$},
1200     and
1201     \mbox{\protect$\infty\leftrightarrow\infty{}$} Table Relationships]
1202     {\mbox{\protect\boldmath$1\leftrightarrow{}1$},
1203     \mbox{\protect\boldmath$1\leftrightarrow{}\infty{}$},
1204     and
1205     \mbox{\protect\boldmath$\infty\leftrightarrow\infty{}$} Table Relationships}
1206     \label{stbg0:sdbx0}
1207    
1208     TBD.
1209    
1210     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1211    
1212     \section{Technical Design Decisions}
1213     \label{stdd0}
1214    
1215     TBD.
1216    
1217     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1218    
1219     \subsection{Standard Web Page Appearance}
1220     \label{stdd0:swpa0}
1221    
1222     TBD.
1223    
1224     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1225    
1226     \subsection{Data Types}
1227     \label{stdd0:sdty0}
1228    
1229     \index{data types}%
1230     This section describes the custom data types maintained by the software.
1231    
1232     PHP is primarily a string-based language. The important data types that
1233     are used to implement this software are, for the most part, forced into
1234     string form. String forms provide a way to represent data not inherently
1235     supported by PHP, such as long integers.
1236    
1237     The string forms of data described here generally (but not always)
1238     have these characteristics.
1239    
1240     \begin{itemize}
1241     \item String forms are typically constant-length.
1242     \item String forms typically have as their first two characters a type identifier.
1243     This provides a way for the software to trap typing mistakes.
1244     \item String forms are typically chosen so that the
1245     lexographic ordering of the strings corresponds to the desired ordering of the
1246     represented data.
1247     \end{itemize}
1248    
1249    
1250     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1251    
1252     \subsubsection{UTIME (Unix Timestamp)}
1253     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sutm0}
1254    
1255     \index{UTIME}%
1256     A Unix timestamp is a decimal representation of the number of
1257     seconds since the Unix epoch, and includes a fractional part.
1258    
1259     \begin{figure}
1260     \centering
1261     \includegraphics[width=4.6in]{utimeformat01.eps}
1262     \caption{Format of UTIME}
1263     \label{fig:stdd0:sdty0:sutm0:00}
1264     \end{figure}
1265    
1266     Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:sdty0:sutm0:00} illustrates the format of
1267     an UTIME. A UTIME consists of 22 characters, with the following
1268     components.
1269    
1270     \begin{itemize}
1271     \item \textbf{``UT'' (2 characters):}
1272     This fixed string aids in preventing type accidents with
1273     string data types.
1274     \item \textbf{Integer seconds since the Unix epoch (11 characters):}
1275     These 11 characters are an integer, zero-padded on the left as
1276     necessary, that represent the integer seconds since the Unix
1277     epoch.
1278     \item \textbf{Nanoseconds associated with the integer seconds (9 characters):}
1279     These 9 characters are an integer, zero-padded on the left as
1280     necessary, that represent the nanoseconds associated with the
1281     integer seconds since the Unix
1282     epoch.
1283     \end{itemize}
1284    
1285     Note that UTIMEs as described have the property that the lexical
1286     string sort order corresponds to the time sort order.
1287    
1288     Note that the UTIME format can be used only for values that:
1289    
1290     \begin{itemize}
1291     \item Are used as part of generating a unique or random data value
1292     (see, for example, \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sgui0}).
1293     \item Are used to determine elapsed time.
1294     \end{itemize}
1295    
1296     UTIMEs cannot be mixed directly with scheduling time, as the FBO
1297     may be in a different time zone than the server.
1298    
1299     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1300    
1301     \subsubsection{SGUID (Server Globally-Unique Identifier)}
1302     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sgui0}
1303    
1304     \index{SGUID}%
1305     \index{globally-unique identifier}%
1306     It is necessary or helpful in some contexts to have a way to create an
1307     identifier that is guaranteed to occur no more often than once in the lifetime
1308     of the server. \emph{MySQL} can be used to create such identifiers, and there
1309     are also methods based on file and IPC semantics that can be used.
1310    
1311     The method used in the software is a \index{spin lock}spin lock on a precision
1312     timestamp; and the timestamp is concatenated with the PID. The method works
1313     because:
1314    
1315     \begin{itemize}
1316     \item A single process (by virtue of the spin lock) can't generate the same
1317     precision timestamp twice.
1318     \item No two processes can have the same PID at the same time.
1319     \end{itemize}
1320    
1321     \begin{figure}
1322     \centering
1323     \includegraphics[width=4.6in]{sguidformat01.eps}
1324     \caption{Format of SGUID}
1325     \label{fig:stdd0:sdty0:sgui0:00}
1326     \end{figure}
1327    
1328     Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:sdty0:sgui0:00} illustrates the format of
1329     an SGUID. An SGUID consists of 32 characters, with the following
1330     components.
1331    
1332     \begin{itemize}
1333     \item \textbf{``SG'' (2 characters):}
1334     This fixed string aids in preventing type accidents with
1335     string data types.
1336     \item \textbf{Integer seconds since the Unix epoch (11 characters):}
1337     These 11 characters are an integer, zero-padded on the left as
1338     necessary, that represent the integer seconds since the Unix
1339     epoch.\footnote{Note that 11 digits comfortably solves the Unix
1340     2037 A.D. issue, as this will guarantee SGUIDs
1341     beyond 5000 A.D.}
1342     \item \textbf{Nanoseconds associated with the integer seconds (9 characters):}
1343     These 9 characters are an integer, zero-padded on the left as
1344     necessary, that represent the nanoseconds associated with the
1345     integer seconds since the Unix
1346     epoch.\footnote{As of this writing, Linux provides time to a resolution
1347     of microseconds. It is anticipated that a resolution of nanoseconds will
1348     accommodate any hardware speed advances in the foreseeable future.}
1349     \item \textbf{PID (10 characters):}
1350     These 10 characters are an integer, zero-padded on the left as
1351     necessary, that represent Unix PID expressed
1352     as a decimal number.\footnote{As of this writing, PIDs are 16 bits only.
1353     However, it seems inevitable that PIDs will be expanded to 24 or 32 bits in the
1354     future.}
1355     \end{itemize}
1356    
1357     Note that SGUIDs as described have a very important property---the lexical
1358     string sort order corresponds to the time sort order, with the PID used as a tie-breaker.
1359     This property is used to decide the priority of standby reservations
1360     (\S{}\ref{stdd0:ssby0}, p. \pageref{stdd0:ssby0}).
1361    
1362     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1363    
1364     \subsubsection{SID (Session Identifier)}
1365     \label{stdd0:sdty0:ssid0}
1366    
1367     A \index{session identifier}session identifier (\index{SID}SID) is the
1368     cookie provided to the browser to authenticate the user after a successful login
1369     process is completed.
1370    
1371     A session identifier is an identifier only. The state associated with the
1372     session is maintained on the server side.
1373    
1374     A session identifier is exactly 66 characters long and consists of these components:
1375    
1376     \begin{itemize}
1377     \item The two characters ``SI'' (2 characters).
1378     \item An SGUID as described in \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sgui0} (32 characters).
1379     \item The server cryptographic hash function of the first two fields described
1380     above (32 characters).
1381     \end{itemize}
1382    
1383     The process of using an SID for authentication is protected by these mechanisms:
1384    
1385     \begin{itemize}
1386     \item It is impossible for a client to forge an SID, as the client does not have
1387     access to the server hash key. (Additionally, it would be extremely for
1388     a client to guess an SGUID that is already associated with a session on the
1389     server, as this space is quite large.)
1390     \item The \emph{\productbasename{}} software also records the IP address of the
1391     connecting computer, records that information in the server-side session
1392     state, and will not accept the SID from a computer connecting from a different
1393     IP address. Thus (NAT schemes aside) an SID cannot be reused by a client
1394     other than the one it was issued to.
1395     \end{itemize}
1396    
1397    
1398     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1399    
1400     \subsubsection{STIME (Scheduling Timestamp)}
1401     \label{stdd0:sdty0:stim0}
1402    
1403     \index{STIME}%
1404     A scheduling timestamp is a timestamp in an abstract
1405     calendar format with a resolution appropriate for:
1406    
1407     \begin{itemize}
1408     \item Representing the start times and end times of
1409     reservations.
1410     \item Marking database records with a modification time that will be
1411     formatted and displayed.
1412     \item Representing dates, such as expiration dates.
1413     \end{itemize}
1414    
1415     \begin{figure}
1416     \centering
1417     \includegraphics[width=4.6in]{stimeformat01.eps}
1418     \caption{Format of STIME}
1419     \label{fig:stdd0:sdty0:stim0:00}
1420     \end{figure}
1421    
1422     Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:sdty0:stim0:00} illustrates the format of
1423     an STIME\@. An STIME consists of 16 characters, with the following
1424     components.
1425    
1426     \begin{itemize}
1427     \item \textbf{``ST'' (2 characters):}
1428     This fixed string aids in preventing type accidents with
1429     string data types.
1430     \item \textbf{Calendar year (4 characters).}
1431     \item \textbf{Calendar month (2 characters).}
1432     \item \textbf{Calendar day (2 characters).}
1433     \item \textbf{Hour, 24-hour time (2 characters).}
1434     \item \textbf{Minute (2 characters).}
1435     \item \textbf{Second (2 characters).}
1436     \item \textbf{Microsecond (6 characters).}
1437     \end{itemize}
1438    
1439     Note that STIMEs as described have the property that the lexical
1440     string sort order corresponds to the time sort order.
1441    
1442     An STIME is used only for scheduling time, and is necessarily the time in the
1443     client locale.
1444    
1445    
1446     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1447    
1448     \subsubsection{DT8 (Short Calendar Date)}
1449     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sdat8}
1450    
1451     \index{DT8}%
1452     The DT8 data type is used to specify dates in a shorthand
1453     format in GET/POST parameters and in software internals.
1454     The format is a string consisting of exactly 8
1455     characters:
1456    
1457     \begin{itemize}
1458     \item Calendar year (4 characters).
1459     \item Calendar month (2 characters).
1460     \item Calendar day (2 characters).
1461     \end{itemize}
1462    
1463     A DT8 is used only for scheduling time, and is necessarily the time in the
1464     client locale.
1465    
1466    
1467     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1468    
1469     \subsubsection{T4 (Short Calendar Time)}
1470     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sdtt4}
1471    
1472     \index{T4}%
1473     The T4 data type is used to specify times in a shorthand
1474     format in GET/POST parameters and in software internals.
1475     The format is a string consisting of exactly 4
1476     characters:
1477    
1478     \begin{itemize}
1479     \item Hour (``00''-``23'', 2 characters).
1480     \item Minute (``00''-``59'', 2 characters).
1481     \end{itemize}
1482    
1483     Note that the string ``2400'' is not a legal T4\@. Technically, ``2400'' is
1484     ``0000'' of the following day.
1485    
1486     A T4 is used only for scheduling time, and is necessarily the time in the
1487     client locale.
1488    
1489     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1490    
1491     \subsubsection{T3 (Shorter Calendar Time)}
1492     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sdtt3}
1493    
1494     \index{T3}%
1495     The T3 data type is used to specify times in a shorthand
1496     format in GET/POST parameters and in software internals, with
1497     a granularity of 10 minutes.
1498    
1499     Because \emph{\productbasename{}} will only schedule with a granularity
1500     of 30 minutes, any start time of a reservation is expressible as a T3.
1501    
1502     The format of a T3 is a string consisting of exactly 3
1503     characters:
1504    
1505     \begin{itemize}
1506     \item Hour (``00''-``23'', 2 characters).
1507     \item Minutes divided by ten (``0''-``5'', 1 character).
1508     \end{itemize}
1509    
1510     Note that the string ``240'' is not a legal T3\@. Technically, ``240'' is
1511     ``000'' of the following day.
1512    
1513     A T3 is used only for scheduling time, and is necessarily the time in the
1514     client locale.
1515    
1516     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1517    
1518     \subsubsection{T2 (Shortest Calendar Time)}
1519     \label{stdd0:sdty0:sdtt2}
1520    
1521     \index{T2}%
1522     The T2 data type is used to specify times in a shorthand
1523     format in GET/POST parameters and in software internals, with
1524     a granularity of 1 hour.
1525    
1526     A T2 is simply the hour of the time, and may range from ``00''-``23''.
1527    
1528     Note that the string ``24'' is not a legal T2\@. Technically, ``24'' is
1529     ``00'' of the following day.
1530    
1531     A T2 is used only for scheduling time, and is necessarily the time in the
1532     client locale.
1533    
1534     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1535    
1536     \subsection{User Permissions}
1537     \label{stdd0:supm0}
1538    
1539     TBD.
1540    
1541     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1542    
1543     \subsubsection{Permission Templates and Permission Schema}
1544     \label{stdd0:supm0:snap0}
1545    
1546     There are [at least] two ways of thinking about user permissions:
1547    
1548     \begin{itemize}
1549     \item A user is in a defined role (customer, FBO owner, line employee,
1550     flight instructor, etc.) and should have fixed privileges
1551     directly tied to to the role.
1552     \item The role of the user is only a starting point for the granting
1553     of permissions. Users may require more or fewer permissions, in
1554     a fine-grained sense, than is traditional for their role. For example,
1555     a line employee may be authorized to change fuel prices or have other
1556     privileges not granted to other line employees.
1557     \end{itemize}
1558    
1559     The approach taken in the \emph{\productbasename{}} software is the second
1560     approach---fine-grained permissions. The specific approach taken is:
1561    
1562     \begin{itemize}
1563     \item At the time a user is created, they are created as a ``permission template'' corresponding
1564     to their role or job. The permission template is a starting point.
1565     \item Permissions are very specific and fine-grained, and all permissions can be
1566     individually added or removed from an individual user after the user
1567     account is created.
1568     \item The permission templates and the associated permissions are
1569     customizable in the configuration file.
1570     \item Most user permissions are Boolean in nature, but some may have integer,
1571     floating point, or
1572     string values.
1573     \end{itemize}
1574    
1575    
1576     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1577    
1578     \subsubsection{Mechanism of Storage and Query}
1579     \label{stdd0:supm0:sstq0}
1580    
1581     PHP is an interpreted language. The steps that are interpreted run
1582     relatively slowly (because the interpreter must parse the PHP statements), whereas
1583     PHP built-in functions (compiled `C' code) run very quickly. One way to enhance
1584     efficiency is to be sure that things that happen often come down to
1585     built-in functions rather than PHP statements that must be interpreted.
1586    
1587     SQL queries are also relatively slow, and a mechanism that avoids these
1588     is desirable.
1589    
1590     The mechanism chosen to represent permissions is:
1591    
1592     \begin{itemize}
1593     \item User permissions are represented as a single string (in \emph{MySQL}, a
1594     \emph{varchar} field).
1595     \item The user permission string is a group of permissions separated by
1596     the forward slash character (``/'').
1597     \item Each permission takes one of the following forms:
1598     \begin{itemize}
1599     \item \emph{``/ptag''}:
1600     For a boolean permission, presence of the
1601     \emph{ptag} indicates that the user has the permission, and absence
1602     of the \emph{ptag} indicates that the user does not have the permission.
1603     \item \emph{``/ptag=``value''}:
1604     The permission (or attribute) \emph{ptag} is assigned the
1605     \emph{value}.
1606     \end{itemize}
1607     \item Permission strings are escaped so that the string \emph{``/ptag''}
1608     can occur only at the start of the definition of the permission
1609     \emph{ptag}. Specifically:
1610     \begin{itemize}
1611     \item If the forward slash character occurs in the value of a
1612     permission, the forward slash character is escaped
1613     by suffixing it with the backslash character.
1614     \item The permission values allowed are very restrictive. Specifically:
1615     \begin{itemize}
1616     \item Backslashes are not allowed within permission values.
1617     \item Double-quotes are not allowed within permission values.
1618     \end{itemize}
1619     \end{itemize}
1620     \item Presence of a permission can be rapidly determined by using
1621     a string search\footnote{The string search functions are built into PHP, and are
1622     very quick because they are compiled `C' code.}
1623     by ``\emph{/ptag}''. Because of the escaping used,
1624     this string can only occur if permission \emph{ptag} exists.
1625     \end{itemize}
1626    
1627    
1628     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1629    
1630     \subsubsection{Administrator Permissions}
1631     \label{stdd0:supm0:sadp0}
1632    
1633     TBD.
1634    
1635     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1636    
1637     \subsection{\emph{MySQL} Database Design}
1638     \label{stdd0:smdd0}
1639    
1640     TBD.
1641    
1642     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1643    
1644     \subsubsection{Overall Relational Design}
1645     \label{stdd0:srds0}
1646    
1647     Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:srds0:00} illustrates the overall relational
1648     database design. The design consists conceptually of only five tables.
1649     However, because the $\infty\leftrightarrow\infty$ relationships require
1650     a cross-reference table, seven physical tables are actually required.
1651    
1652     \begin{figure}
1653     \centering
1654     \includegraphics[width=4.6in]{rdoveralldesign01.eps}
1655     \caption{\emph{\productname{}} Relational Database Overall Design}
1656     \label{fig:stdd0:srds0:00}
1657     \end{figure}
1658    
1659     In the actual \emph{MySQL} database, the eight tables shown in
1660     Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:srds0:00} are named exactly
1661     as indicated:
1662     \index{usrs@\emph{usrs}}\emph{usrs},
1663     \index{resv@\emph{resv}}\emph{resv},
1664     \index{slot@\emph{slot}}\emph{slot},
1665     \index{rscs@\emph{rscs}}\emph{rscs},
1666     \index{sper@\emph{sper}}\emph{sper},
1667     \index{sess@\emph{sess}}\emph{sess},
1668     \index{loge@\emph{loge}}\emph{loge},
1669     and
1670     \index{dpar@\emph{dpar}}\emph{dpar}.
1671     The cross-reference table not shown in the figure is named by concatenating the
1672     cross-referenced table names:
1673     \index{usrsresv@\emph{usrsresv}}\emph{usrsresv}.
1674    
1675     The seven tables shown in Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:srds0:00}
1676     have the following contents:
1677    
1678     \begin{itemize}
1679     \item \textbf{\emph{usrs} (Users):}
1680     User information, including contact information and hashed password.
1681     \item \textbf{\emph{resv} (Reservations):}
1682     Reservations, including comments.
1683     \item \textbf{\emph{slot} (Slots):}
1684     Information about the actual time slot occupied by a reservations's
1685     linked resource, including start time and end time.\footnote{The
1686     \emph{slot} table allows a single reservation to use two or more different
1687     resources at different times. This occurs most commonly when a student
1688     schedules both ``ground'' and ``air'' time with an instructor, and the
1689     ``ground'' time extends either before or after the ``air'' time, or both.}
1690     \item \textbf{\emph{rscs} (Resources):}
1691     Schedulable resources, including aircraft, simulators, and flight instructors.
1692     \item \textbf{\emph{sper} (Scheduling Permissions):}
1693     The relationship between users and resources, in terms of the user's ability
1694     to schedule the resource with and without an instructor.\footnote{Instructors themselves
1695     have no scheduling restrictions---any student may schedule time with any instructor.}
1696     \item \textbf{\emph{sess} (Sessions):}
1697     State of user logins.
1698     \item \textbf{\emph{loge} (Log entries):}
1699     Significant and insignificant events for the software. These are stored
1700     in a database table rather than a file
1701     for easier sorting, viewing, manipulation, and pruning.
1702     \item \textbf{\emph{dpar} (Database parameters):}
1703     Parameters of the database as a whole, such as the current
1704     version of \emph{\productbasename{}} that created the
1705     database and an SGUID obtained at the time any table of
1706     the database was modified.
1707     \end{itemize}
1708    
1709     Note in Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:srds0:00} that there is a 1:1 link indicated
1710     between resources and users. Every flight instructor resource is also a user, and so
1711     when a user (usually, a student) creates, modifies, or cancels a reservation,
1712     the flight instructor user may be automatically notified by e-mail. In order to
1713     determine the e-mail addresses associated with the flight instructor resource,
1714     the link from the resource to the user is followed. Without such a link, the
1715     flight instructor's e-mail addresses would have to be maintained in two places in
1716     the database.
1717    
1718    
1719     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1720    
1721     \subsubsection{Structure of Reservations}
1722     \label{stdd0:sres0}
1723    
1724     A reservation consists of the following components (please
1725     refer to Figure \ref{fig:stdd0:srds0:00}):
1726    
1727     \begin{itemize}
1728     \item One or more entries from the users table (\emph{usrs}). In the case
1729     of multiple users attached to a reservation, all have authority to
1730     modify the reservation.
1731     \item \textbf{Exactly one} record from the reservations table (\emph{resv}).
1732     \item One or more entries from the slots table (\emph{slot}).
1733     \item One or more entries from the resources table (\emph{rscs}), paired
1734     1:1 with the entries from the slots table. (Note also that a given reservation
1735     may include a given resource only once.)
1736     \end{itemize}
1737    
1738     The format of a \emph{reservation} as presented above is deliberately general.
1739     It allows these reservation structures:
1740    
1741     \begin{itemize}
1742     \item More than one user may be included on a reservation. This facilitates
1743     the case where two users schedule the same resource at the same time (for example,
1744     if two users fly together somewhere recreationally).
1745     \item If more than one resource is included on a reservation, the resources need not be
1746     scheduled at the same time. (For example, this accommodates the case where a student may have
1747     some ``ground'' time with a flight instructor before or after flying.)
1748     \item Any number of resources may be present on a reservation.
1749     (For example, a mechanic could reserve three planes at once for reservations.)
1750     \end{itemize}
1751    
1752     Note that other rules (not related to database structure) may prohibit
1753     some of the structures above. For example, a student may be prohibited
1754     from scheduling more than one airplane and one instructor.
1755    
1756     Zero-length reservations (reservations with $t_0 = t_1$) are currently prohibited.
1757    
1758     Reservations can be of three types:
1759    
1760     \begin{itemize}
1761     \item \index{active reservation}\index{reservation!active}\textbf{Active Reservations:}
1762     An active reservation is a reservation that currently blocks a resource
1763     (prevents other simultaneous active reservations).
1764     \item \index{standby reservation}\index{reservation!standby}\textbf{Standby Reservations:}
1765     A standby reservation is a reservation that can be promoted to
1766     an active reservation if the conflicting active reservation(s)
1767     are canceled.
1768     \item \index{banner reservation}\index{reservation!banner}\textbf{Banner Reservations:}
1769     A banner reservation is a ``reservation'' that is for
1770     information only, and cannot block active reservations or be
1771     promoted to an active reservation.
1772    
1773     A banner reservation is for user information only. Sample
1774     uses of banner reservations:
1775    
1776     \begin{itemize}
1777     \item To provide special instructions for scheduling an airplane
1778     or flight instructor. (Example: ``\emph{Please contact Jane
1779     directly to schedule instruction on Mondays}''.)
1780     \item To provide information about an airplane or flight
1781     instructor. (Example: ``\emph{Rates have been
1782     increased to \$100/hr for this aircraft}''.)
1783     \end{itemize}
1784     \end{itemize}
1785    
1786     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1787    
1788     \subsubsection{Treatment of Standby Reservations}
1789     \label{stdd0:ssby0}
1790    
1791     A \index{standby reservation}\index{reservation!standby}\emph{standby reservation}
1792     is a reservation made for resource(s) when the resource is/are already
1793     committed to another reservation(s) at the same time. (\emph{At the same time} means
1794     any form of overlap.)
1795    
1796     A standby reservation is represented in exactly the same way as an
1797     \index{active reservation}\index{reservation!active}active reservation, except that
1798     the Boolean table field
1799     \emph{isactive} (see \S{}\ref{sdtf0})
1800     is set FALSE.
1801    
1802     Active and standby reservations are manipulated using the following
1803     rules.
1804    
1805     \begin{enumerate}
1806     \item The maximum number (i.e. depth) of standby reservations is limited by
1807     a configuration constant in the \emph{TBD} file. If this configuration
1808     constant is 0, standby reservations are not allowed.
1809     \item The maximum depth of standby reservations configuration constant is
1810     only loosely enforced. There are some situations where depth of standby
1811     reservations will be underestimated (due to the computational complexity
1812     of evaluating the true depth), but \emph{at least} the number of configured
1813     standby reservations will be allowed.
1814     \item When a user schedules a reservation, the reservation is created as an
1815     active reservation if there are no resource conflicts. However, if there
1816     are resource conflicts and if the configuration allows it, the user is given the option of
1817     creating a standby reservation.
1818     \item When an active reservation is canceled, one or more standby reservations will be
1819     automatically promoted, if applicable, to occupy the resources freed up. If
1820     permission flags for the canceling user are appropriate, the promotion of standby
1821     reservations may be suppressed.
1822     \item If a cancelation is made too close to the reservation time, (the notion of
1823     ``too close'' is a configuration constant), a standby reservation cannot be
1824     promoted (rationale: not enough time for the person whose reservation is promoted
1825     to react).
1826     \item FBO staff may change active reservations to standby reservations and may promote a
1827     given standby reservation to active (thus changing all conflicting active
1828     reservations to standby reservations),
1829     \textbf{but standby reservations may not have their priority reordered}.
1830     The relative priority of multiple standby reservations is determined by the
1831     creation SGUID---this is an automatic assignment and cannot be changed manually.
1832     \end{enumerate}
1833    
1834    
1835     E-mail notifications are sent whenever:
1836    
1837     \begin{itemize}
1838     \item Standby reservations are automatically or manually
1839     promoted to active reservations.
1840     \item A standby reservation can't be promoted to an active reservation
1841     because an active reservation was modified or deleted too close
1842     to the reservation time.
1843     \end{itemize}
1844    
1845     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1846    
1847     \subsection{Query Complexity}
1848     \label{stdd0:sqcx0}
1849    
1850     It needs to be verified that all of the intended queries and maintenance
1851     operations are approximately $O(\log N)$ (see \S{}\ref{stbg0:sonn0}, p.
1852     \pageref{stbg0:sonn0}). In this section, the major queries are
1853     examined in detail.
1854    
1855    
1856     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1857    
1858     \subsubsection{Resource Scheduling Views}
1859     \label{stdd0:sqcx0:ssvw0}
1860    
1861     Scheduling views are perhaps the most important query. Users expect
1862     ``snappy'' response (near-instant display of scheduling information).
1863    
1864     A scheduling view is parameterized by:
1865    
1866     \begin{itemize}
1867     \item The set of resources whose schedules are to be displayed.
1868     \item The time window, identified by a lower and an upper bound.
1869     \end{itemize}
1870    
1871     The set of resources whose scheduling information is to be displayed is a
1872     linear constant. It tends to be either of size one or every resource schedulable.
1873     In any case, it is a small number ($<$100).
1874    
1875     The time window is parameterized for an SQL query on key fields.
1876    
1877     $O(\log N)$.
1878    
1879     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1880    
1881     \subsubsection{User Views}
1882     \label{stdd0:sqcx0:suvw0}
1883    
1884     All conceivable user views and edits (alphabetical, uid, whatever) are
1885     $O(\log N)$. There may be a few deceptive queries that become $O(N)$, but these
1886     can be massaged.
1887    
1888     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1889    
1890     \subsubsection{Standby Reservations}
1891     \label{stdd0:sqcx0:ssby0}
1892    
1893    
1894    
1895    
1896     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1897    
1898     \subsection{Session Management}
1899     \label{stdd0:ssmg0}
1900    
1901     TBD.
1902    
1903     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1904    
1905     \subsection{Mutual Exclusion and Database and Table Locking}
1906     \label{stdd0:sdbl0}
1907    
1908     \index{locking (database}\index{database locking}\emph{MySQL} guarantees that
1909     each SQL statement will execute atomically. In many cases, necessary actions
1910     can be phrased as a single SQL statement, and no locking is required. However, in
1911     other cases, complex database updates must be completed atomically and locking
1912     is required.
1913    
1914     In addition to database design issues, editing collisions due to the nature
1915     of HTTP must be handled appropriately.\footnote{Among web developers, these collisions
1916     are sometimes called \emph{midair collisions}\@. I don't believe
1917     this is suitable nomenclature in an aviation environment, and so the
1918     term \emph{HTTP editing collision} is used.}
1919     An HTTP editing collision occurs when two [or more] users obtain copies of data
1920     in web browser forms, one user commits changed data back, and the second user
1921     commits different changes, with no knowledge of the changes made by the first user,
1922     and thus may overwrite the first user's changes.
1923    
1924     The strategy for mutual exclusion and database/table locking should meet
1925     these requirements and constraints:
1926    
1927     \begin{itemize}
1928     \item The strategy must allow a database maintenance script to run concurrently
1929     with web access to the database.
1930     \item The strategy must not block web page views for too long (never longer than 1-4 seconds,
1931     and no delay for the vast majority of web page accesses).
1932     \item The strategy must be fair: no process should block indefinitely.
1933     \item The strategy should be simple.
1934     \item The strategy must at least detect and optionally correct HTTP editing collisions.
1935     \end{itemize}
1936    
1937     The strategy employed is:
1938    
1939     \begin{itemize}
1940     \item Any process (either maintenance or web access) that has mutual exclusion needs
1941     locks the entire database (rather than locking individual tables).
1942     \begin{itemize}
1943     \item This strategy is very simple.
1944     \item This strategy prevents the possibility of deadlock (due to ordering of table locks).
1945     \item This strategy inherently serializes and is fair (because of \emph{MySQL}'s behavior).
1946     \item Maintenance scripts can be written to check and correct the database
1947     incrementally and to lock the database only for short periods of time,
1948     thus not blocking web users for too long.
1949     \end{itemize}
1950     \item In any scenario where an HTTP editing collision is a potential problem:
1951     \begin{itemize}
1952     \item An SGUID is stored on a database record commit.
1953     \item The SGUID is provided as a hidden form field on editing pages.
1954     \item At the time a commit is attempted, if the SGUID held by the browser is different than the
1955     one in the database, there has been an editing collision. In this case, at minimum
1956     notification is made.
1957     \end{itemize}
1958     \end{itemize}
1959    
1960     Finally, database locking has the standard software problem of how to embed a critical
1961     section within another critical section. The pseudo-code below should suffice.
1962    
1963     \begin{verbatim}
1964     local_lock_var = global_lock_var;
1965     lock_database();
1966     global_lock_var = TRUE;
1967    
1968     ...
1969     Take action, perhaps calling sub-functions with
1970     identical pseudo-code.
1971     ...
1972    
1973     if (! local_lock_var)
1974     {
1975     unlock_database();
1976     global_lock_var = FALSE;
1977     }
1978     \end{verbatim}
1979    
1980     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1981    
1982     \section{Web Pages}
1983     \label{swpg0}
1984    
1985     TBD.
1986    
1987     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1988    
1989     \subsection{\texttt{index.php} (Scheduler Entry Page / All Scheduling Views)}
1990     \label{swpg0:siph0}
1991    
1992     TBD.
1993    
1994     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
1995    
1996     \subsection{\texttt{logview.php} (Action / Event / Exception Log View)}
1997     \label{swpg0:slvw0}
1998    
1999     TBD.
2000    
2001     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2002    
2003     \subsection{\texttt{resourceadd.php} (Resource Addition)}
2004     \label{swpg0:srad0}
2005    
2006     TBD.
2007    
2008     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2009    
2010     \subsection{\texttt{resourceedit.php} (Resource Edit)}
2011     \label{swpg0:sred0}
2012    
2013     TBD.
2014    
2015     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2016    
2017     \subsection{\texttt{resourcemanage.php} (Resource List / Select Action)}
2018     \label{swpg0:srmg0}
2019    
2020     TBD.
2021    
2022     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2023    
2024     \subsection{\texttt{resourceview.php} (Resource View)}
2025     \label{swpg0:srvw0}
2026    
2027     TBD.
2028    
2029     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2030    
2031     \subsection{\texttt{signupadd.php} (Signup Addition)}
2032     \label{swpg0:ssad0}
2033    
2034     TBD.
2035    
2036     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2037    
2038     \subsection{\texttt{signupedit.php} (Signup Edit)}
2039     \label{swpg0:ssed0}
2040    
2041     TBD.
2042    
2043     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2044    
2045     \subsection{\texttt{signupmanage.php} (Signup List / Select Action)}
2046     \label{swpg0:ssmg0}
2047    
2048     TBD.
2049    
2050     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2051    
2052     \subsection{\texttt{signupview.php} (Signup View)}
2053     \label{swpg0:ssvw0}
2054    
2055     TBD.
2056    
2057     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2058    
2059     \subsection{\texttt{useradd.php} (User Addition)}
2060     \label{swpg0:susd0}
2061    
2062     TBD.
2063    
2064     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2065    
2066     \subsection{\texttt{useredit.php} (User Edit)}
2067     \label{swpg0:suse0}
2068    
2069     TBD.
2070    
2071     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2072    
2073     \subsection{\texttt{useremail.php} (Send Mass E-mail / Announcement to Users)}
2074     \label{swpg0:seus0}
2075    
2076     TBD.
2077    
2078     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2079    
2080     \subsection{\texttt{usermanage.php} (User List / Select Action)}
2081     \label{swpg0:sumg0}
2082    
2083     TBD.
2084    
2085     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2086    
2087     \subsection{\texttt{userview.php} (User View)}
2088     \label{swpg0:suvw0}
2089    
2090     TBD.
2091    
2092     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2093    
2094     \section{Standalone Scripts}
2095     \label{ssas0}
2096    
2097     TBD.
2098    
2099     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2100    
2101     \subsection{\texttt{adminforce.php} (Emergency Administrator Password Reset)}
2102     \label{ssas0:samf0}
2103    
2104     TBD.
2105    
2106     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2107    
2108     \subsection{\texttt{dbconncheck.php} (Database Connectivity and Authentication Check)}
2109     \label{ssas0:sdbc0}
2110    
2111     \index{dbconncheck.php@\texttt{dbconncheck.php}}The \texttt{dbconncheck.php}
2112     script takes the following actions:
2113    
2114     \begin{itemize}
2115     \item Attempts to connect and authenticate to the \emph{MySQL} daemon
2116     using the information in
2117     \index{config.inc@\texttt{config.inc}}\texttt{config.inc}.
2118     \item Attempts to select the database specified in the
2119     \texttt{config.inc}.
2120     \item Attempts to close the \emph{MySQL} connection.
2121     \item Announces failure or success and provides details.
2122     \end{itemize}
2123    
2124     The \texttt{dbconncheck.php} can be used to verify \emph{MySQL} database connectivity
2125     during the \emph{\productbasename{}} setup process.
2126    
2127     The \texttt{dbconncheck.php} script takes no command-line parameters (it receives
2128     the \emph{MySQL} connection it requires by including \emph{PHP} library files).
2129    
2130    
2131     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2132    
2133     \subsection{\texttt{dbinit.php} (Database Initialization and Upgrade)}
2134     \label{ssas0:sdbi0}
2135    
2136     TBD.
2137    
2138     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2139    
2140     \subsection{\texttt{mainthot.php} (In-Service Daily Database Maintenance)}
2141     \label{ssas0:smah0}
2142    
2143     TBD.
2144    
2145     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2146    
2147     \subsection{\texttt{phplibset.php} (Source File PHP Library Path Modification)}
2148     \label{ssas0:sphl0}
2149    
2150     TBD.
2151    
2152     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2153    
2154     \subsection{\texttt{sitehashkeygen.php} (Source Hash Key Generation)}
2155     \label{ssas0:shkg0}
2156    
2157     The \index{sitehashkeygen.php@\emph{sitehashkeygen.php}}\texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
2158     script generates a suitable site hash key as a constant in a PHP include file
2159     and places it in a file named \emph{sitehashkey.inc}.
2160    
2161     By default, the \emph{sitehashkey.inc} is placed in the current working directory.
2162     However, the \texttt{sitehashkeygen.php} script accepts an optional parameter,
2163     the directory in which to place the file.
2164    
2165     \begin{figure}
2166     \begin{scriptsize}
2167     \begin{verbatim}
2168     <?php
2169     //This PHP include file contains the FboPrime site hash key. This key is
2170     //normally automatically generated at the time the software is set up.
2171     //This key can be edited by hand safely--it is just an ordinary string of
2172     //arbitrary length. However, if it is manually edited, it should be
2173     //edited only at the time the system is set up. Modifying this key on a
2174     //working system will invalidate every user password and may have other ill
2175     //effects as well.
2176     //
2177     //Permissions on this file should be set so that FboPrime users cannot view
2178     //its contents (it should be private to the Apache server). If FboPrime
2179     //users can view this key, it may enable some security attacks on the
2180     //FboPrime software (as users may be able to forge some data).
2181     //
2182     //Generating program: $RCSfile: manual.tex,v $
2183     //Generating program CVS revision: $Revision: 1.36 $
2184     //Generating program CVS revision date: $Date: 2006/04/10 04:28:07 $
2185     //Time of key generation: 05-Feb-2006 14:15:26 (UTC -0500)
2186     //------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2187     define("SITEHASHKEY_SITEHASHKEY", "5bc9fc5b2fafd50c5ac9c267f03fecb1668cf4de80f37f392b" .
2188     "2fbe0fefd0e5f76G[o6BCR.pitb[z-GOgdk=3GzdwU=I2)8>ff" .
2189     "vS(s17Wc,f?F*fS70WOz<3dUMfLV9=<FCZ[D(OQ/-PtQ*5Y*=w" .
2190     "nUzAy5Q3_Z*ToqCg*r*DgRbJq?O8*zEad.LL2kO-3CGr+1HPtv" );
2191     ?>
2192     \end{verbatim}
2193     \end{scriptsize}
2194     \caption{Format of Automatically-Generated \emph{sitehashkey.inc} File}
2195     \label{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00}
2196     \end{figure}
2197    
2198     A typical automatically-generated
2199     \emph{sitehashkey.inc} file is shown in Figure \ref{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00}.
2200    
2201     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2202    
2203     \subsection{\texttt{sbyrespromote.php} (Promotion of Standby Reservations)}
2204     \label{ssas0:spsr0}
2205    
2206     TBD.
2207    
2208     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2209    
2210     \section{PHP Library Files}
2211     \label{sphl0}
2212    
2213     TBD.
2214    
2215     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2216    
2217     \subsection{\texttt{config.inc} (Global Configuration Constants)}
2218     \label{sphl0:siph0}
2219    
2220     \index{config.inc@\texttt{config.inc}}The \texttt{config.inc} file contains particulars
2221     of the FBO and the installation, including:
2222    
2223     \begin{itemize}
2224     \item FBO location and contact information (mailing address, phone numbers, etc.).
2225     \item Database connection information (host, database, userid, and password information).
2226     \item Behavioral constants (scheduling and data retention policy).
2227     \end{itemize}
2228    
2229     This file must be customized as part of the
2230     \emph{\productbasename{}} installation process.
2231    
2232     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2233    
2234     \subsection{\texttt{confighard.inc} (Global Unmodifyable Configuration Constants)}
2235     \label{sphl0:scfh1}
2236    
2237     \index{confighard.inc@\texttt{confighard.inc}}The \texttt{confighard.inc} file contains
2238     global configuration constants that either:
2239    
2240     \begin{itemize}
2241     \item Would not need to be configured by the FBO, or
2242     \item Are bound tightly to the code and so can't be changed without also
2243     changing the code.
2244     \end{itemize}
2245    
2246     The constants in this file should not be changed by the users of the
2247     \emph{\productbasename{}} software.
2248    
2249     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2250    
2251     \subsection{\texttt{crhsh.inc} (Cryptographic Hash Functions)}
2252     \label{sphl0:schf0}
2253    
2254     \index{crhsh.inc@\texttt{crhsh.inc}}The \texttt{crhsh.inc} file
2255     contains functions dealing with cryptographic hashes.
2256    
2257     See \S{}\ref{stbg0:smdf0}, \S{}\ref{stbg0:sfch0}, and \S{}\ref{stbg0:spst0}.
2258    
2259     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2260    
2261     \subsection{\texttt{datefunc.inc} (Date Calculation and Related Functions)}
2262     \label{sphl0:sdfc0}
2263    
2264     \index{datefunc.inc@\texttt{datefunc.inc}}The \texttt{datefunc.inc} file
2265     contains functions that perform date calculations
2266     (for example, date differences and the day of the week corresponding
2267     to an arbitrary date). Many of the calculations are based on modulo
2268     arithmetic.
2269    
2270     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2271    
2272     \subsection{\texttt{sitehashkey.inc} (Site Hash Key)}
2273     \label{sphl0:sshk0}
2274    
2275     \index{sitehaskey.inc@\texttt{sitehashkey.inc}}The \texttt{sitehashkey.inc} file contains
2276     the site hash key. This file is normally automatically generated by the
2277     \index{sitehashkeygen.php@\emph{sitehashkeygen.php}}\texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
2278     script as part of the \emph{\productbasename{}} installation process.
2279    
2280     Please see:
2281    
2282     \begin{itemize}
2283     \item \S{}\ref{sins0:sssi0:sgsh0} (p. \pageref{sins0:sssi0:sgsh0})
2284     for instructions about how to execute the \texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
2285     script to generate the \texttt{sitehashkey.inc} file.
2286     \item \S{}\ref{ssas0:shkg0} (p. \pageref{ssas0:shkg0})
2287     for a description of the \texttt{sitehashkeygen.php}
2288     script.
2289     \item Fig. \ref{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00} (p. \pageref{fig:ssas0:shkg0:00})
2290     for the typical format of a site hash key.
2291     \end{itemize}
2292    
2293     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2294    
2295     \subsection{\texttt{timeraw.inc} (Raw Time Acquisition)}
2296     \label{sphl0:strw0}
2297    
2298     \index{timeraw.inc@\texttt{timeraw.inc}}The \texttt{timeraw.inc} file contains
2299     functions that obtain the raw time from the server's clock.
2300    
2301     Functions that obtain the raw time are localized in one file to ease
2302     Unix epoch issue changes if they have to be made.
2303    
2304     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2305    
2306     \subsection{\texttt{utime.inc} (UTIME Acquisition and Operations)}
2307     \label{sphl0:sutm0}
2308    
2309     \index{utime.inc@\texttt{utime.inc}}The \texttt{utime.inc} file contains
2310     functions that:
2311    
2312     \begin{itemize}
2313     \item Obtain the raw time from the server's clock in the UTIME
2314     format (described in \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sutm0}).
2315     \item Perform operations on the UTIME data type
2316     (described in \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sutm0}).
2317     \end{itemize}
2318    
2319     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2320    
2321     \clearpage{}
2322     \section{\emph{MySQL} Database Tables and Fields}
2323     \label{sdtf0}
2324    
2325     This section provides a detailed description of each \emph{MySQL} database table
2326     and field. Documentation is maintained in this document rather than in
2327     the software source code.
2328    
2329     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2330     \subsection{\emph{usrs} (Users) Table}
2331     \label{sdtf0:susr0}
2332    
2333     The \emph{usrs} table contains information about each user, with each user stored in
2334     one database row.
2335    
2336     \begin{docdbtblfielddef}
2337    
2338     \item \index{uidx@\emph{uidx}}\textbf{\emph{uidx} (int)}
2339    
2340     An integer index identifying the user, automatically assigned by the
2341     \emph{MySQL} database.
2342    
2343     In many contexts (GET and POST parameters, for example), this index is
2344     used to identify a user. It provides a generally shorter way to identify
2345     a user than the \emph{userid}.
2346    
2347     \item \index{userid@\emph{userid}}\textbf{\emph{userid} (varchar[20])}
2348    
2349     The text string used to log in to the
2350     \emph{\productbasename{}} software. In the database table,
2351     this string is always stored in lower-case, but the software treats
2352     this string as case-insensitive when it is entered by a user.
2353    
2354     This string must begin with a letter, and may contain letters and
2355     digits only.
2356    
2357     The FBO may assign this text string arbitrarily. Common conventions
2358     are to use the first initial and last name (example: \emph{dashley}),
2359     first and middle initial and last name (example: \emph{dtashley}),
2360     or a nickname (example: \emph{womanizer}).
2361     \end{docdbtblfielddef}
2362    
2363    
2364     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2365     \subsection{\emph{resv} (Reservations) Table}
2366     \label{sdtf0:srsv0}
2367    
2368     \index{resv@\emph{resv}}The
2369     \emph{resv} table contains one record for each reservation.
2370    
2371     \begin{docdbtblfielddef}
2372     \item \index{ridx@\emph{ridx}}\textbf{\emph{ridx} (int64)}
2373    
2374     An integer index identifying the reservation, automatically
2375     assigned by the \emph{MySQL} database.
2376    
2377     \item \index{sstime@\emph{sstime}}\textbf{\emph{sstime} (char[14])}
2378    
2379     An STIME string identifying the start time of the reservation. This is
2380     necessarily the minimum of the start times of any of the \emph{slot}s linked
2381     to the reservation, and is used to facilitate more efficient queries.
2382    
2383     \item \index{estime@\emph{estime}}\textbf{\emph{estime} (char[14])}
2384    
2385     An STIME string identifying the end time of the reservation. This is
2386     necessarily the maximum of the end times of any of the \emph{slot}s linked
2387     to the reservation, and is used to facilitate more efficient queries.
2388    
2389     \item \index{csguid@\emph{csguid}}\textbf{\emph{csguid} (SGUID)}
2390    
2391     An SGUID assigned at the time the reservation is created. This provides
2392     information about when the reservation is created, and also provides a
2393     guaranteed unique sort order for standby reservations.
2394    
2395     \item \index{msguid@\emph{msguid}}\textbf{\emph{msguid} (SGUID)}
2396    
2397     An SGUID assigned at the time the reservation is created or modified.
2398     This is used to prevent editing collisions and double-commits.
2399    
2400     \item \index{isactive@\emph{isactive}}\textbf{\emph{isactive} (BOOLEAN)}
2401    
2402     TRUE if the reservation is an
2403     \index{active reservation}\index{reservation!active}active reservation,
2404     or FALSE if the reservation is a standby reservation.
2405     \end{docdbtblfielddef}
2406    
2407     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2408     \subsection{\emph{slot} (Slots) Table}
2409     \label{sdtf0:sslt0}
2410    
2411     \index{slot@\emph{slot}}
2412    
2413     TBD.
2414    
2415     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2416     \subsection{\emph{rscs} (Resources) Table}
2417     \label{sdtf0:srsc0}
2418    
2419     \index{rscs@\emph{rscs}}
2420    
2421     TBD.
2422    
2423     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2424     \subsection{\emph{sper} (Scheduling Permissions) Table}
2425     \label{sdtf0:sspr0}
2426    
2427     \index{sper@\emph{sper}}
2428    
2429     TBD.
2430    
2431     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2432     \subsection{\emph{sess} (Sessions) Table}
2433     \label{sdtf0:sses0}
2434    
2435     \index{sess@\emph{sess}}
2436    
2437     TBD.
2438    
2439     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2440     \subsection{\emph{loge} (Log Entries) Table}
2441     \label{sdtf0:slge0}
2442    
2443     \index{loge@\emph{loge}}
2444    
2445     TBD.
2446    
2447     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2448     \subsection{\emph{dpar} (Database Parameters) Table}
2449     \label{sdtf0:sdpr0}
2450    
2451     \index{dpar@\emph{dpar}}
2452    
2453     TBD.
2454    
2455    
2456     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2457    
2458     \clearpage{}
2459     \section{User Permission Flags and Values}
2460     \label{supf0}
2461    
2462     \begin{docdbtblfielddef}
2463    
2464     \item \index{slvl@\emph{slvl}}\textbf{\emph{slvl} (Security Level)}
2465    
2466     The general security level of the user. Security levels are in descending
2467     security order. In general, a user at security level $n$
2468     cannot modify the settings of users with security level $<n$.
2469    
2470     The levels used are:
2471    
2472     \begin{itemize}
2473     \item \textbf{0:}
2474     System administrators.
2475     \item \textbf{1:}
2476     FBO management and senior staff.
2477     \item \textbf{2:}
2478     Flight instructors and mechanics.
2479     \item \textbf{3:}
2480     Line employees.
2481     \item \textbf{4:}
2482     Customers.
2483     \end{itemize}
2484    
2485     \end{docdbtblfielddef}
2486    
2487     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2488    
2489     \clearpage{}
2490     \section{Glossary of Database Parameters}
2491     \label{sgld0}
2492    
2493     This glossary describes the parameters that may be stored in the
2494     \emph{dpar} database table (see \S{}\ref{sdtf0:sdpr0}).
2495    
2496     \begin{docglossaryenum}
2497     \item \index{MAINT_SCRIPT_ACTIVE@\emph{MAINT\_SCRIPT\_ACTIVE}}\textbf{MAINT\_SCRIPT\_ACTIVE}
2498    
2499     Has the value of `0' if the maintenance script is not active, or
2500     the value of a UTIME (described in \S{}\ref{stdd0:sdty0:sutm0}) representing
2501     the time at which the maintenance script was started if the
2502     maintenance script is active.
2503    
2504     This parameter is used
2505     so that a second instance of the maintenance script cannot be started while
2506     an earlier invocation is still in progress.
2507    
2508     This parameter is also used to detect when a maintenance script has
2509     been terminated abormally, so that future invocations are not
2510     blocked indefinitely. The criterion used is that the maintenance
2511     script has apparently been active for too long (this can easily
2512     be determined from the UTIME value).
2513    
2514     \item \index{FBOPRIME_VERSION@\emph{FBOPRIME\_VERSION}}\textbf{FBOPRIME\_VERSION}
2515    
2516     The version number of \emph{\productbasename{}} that created the database.
2517     This version number is used only for database upgrades.
2518     The version of \emph{\productbasename{}} described by this document is
2519     \emph{\productversion{}}.
2520     \end{docglossaryenum}
2521    
2522    
2523     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2524    
2525     \clearpage{}
2526     \section{Glossary of GET/POST Parameters}
2527     \label{sglo0}
2528    
2529     TBD.
2530    
2531     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2532    
2533     \clearpage{}
2534     \section{Glossary of Terms, Acronyms, and Nomenclature}
2535     \label{sglo1}
2536    
2537     \begin{docglossaryenum}
2538    
2539     \item \index{GMT}\textbf{GMT}
2540    
2541     See \emph{UTC} in this section.
2542    
2543     \item \textbf{MAC}\index{MAS@\emph{MAC}}
2544    
2545     Marshall Aviation Center.
2546    
2547     \item \textbf{MAS}\index{MAS@\emph{MAS}}
2548    
2549     Metzger's Aircraft Services.
2550    
2551     \item \index{UTC}\textbf{UTC}
2552    
2553     \emph{UTC} (universal time)
2554     is the time kept on the Greenwich meridian (longitude zero), and is
2555     normally five hours ahead of
2556     \index{Eastern Standard Time}Eastern Standard Time (\index{EST}EST).
2557     UTC is sometimes also called
2558     \index{GMT}GMT (\index{Greenwich Mean Time}Greenwich Mean Time)
2559     or \index{Zulu time}Zulu time.
2560    
2561     \end{docglossaryenum}
2562    
2563    
2564     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2565     \clearpage{}
2566     \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{References}
2567    
2568     \begin{thebibliography}{000}
2569     \bibitem{bibref:com:kalsoft}
2570     \index{Kalamazoo Software}\emph{Kalamazoo Software}\\
2571     \texttt{http://www.kal-soft.com}
2572     \bibitem{bibref:i:masternakdawn}
2573     \index{Masternak, Dawn}\emph{Dawn Masternak}\\
2574     \texttt{d\_masternak@hotmail.com}
2575     \bibitem{bibref:i:whitingtheresa}
2576     \index{Whiting, Theresa}\emph{Theresa Whiting}\\
2577     \texttt{limeshoes@yahoo.com}
2578     \bibitem{bibref:i:wynjadaniel}
2579     \index{Wynja, Daniel}\emph{Daniel Wynja}\\
2580     \texttt{danielwynja@hotmail.com}
2581     \bibitem{bibref:i:metzgereric}
2582     \index{Metzger, Eric}\emph{Eric Metzger}\\
2583     \texttt{ericmetzger@charter.net}
2584     \bibitem{bibref:i:ashleydavidt}
2585     \index{Ashley, David}\emph{Ashley, David}\\
2586     \texttt{dta@e3ft.com}
2587     \bibitem{bibref:p:ors}
2588     \index{ORS@\emph{ORS}}\emph{ORS} (\emph{O}nline \emph{R}esource \emph{S}cheduler)\\
2589     \texttt{http://ors.sourceforge.net}
2590     \bibitem{bibref:hagenhostingweb}
2591     \index{Hagen Hosting}\emph{Hagen Hosting}\\
2592     \texttt{http://www.hagenhosting.com}
2593     \bibitem{bibref:c:mysql}
2594     \index{MySQL@\emph{MySQL}}\emph{MySQL} \\
2595     \texttt{http://www.mysql.com}
2596     \bibitem{bibref:annarboraviationcenterweb}
2597     \emph{Ann Arbor Aviation Center} \\
2598     \texttt{http://www.aviationcenter.aero}
2599     \bibitem{bibref:gnuorgweb}
2600     \emph{GNU} \\
2601     \texttt{http://www.gnu.org}
2602     \bibitem{bibref:rfc1321}
2603     \index{RFC 1321}\index{MD5 message digest algorithm}\emph{RFC 1321---The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm} \\
2604     \texttt{http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1321.html}
2605     \bibitem{bibref:i:rostamianrouben}
2606     \index{Rostamian, Rouben}\emph{Rouben Rostamian}\\
2607     \texttt{rouben@pc18.math.umbc.edu}
2608     \end{thebibliography}
2609    
2610     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2611     \clearpage{}
2612     \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{Index}
2613     \printindex
2614     %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
2615     \end{document}
2616     %
2617     %$Log: manual.tex,v $
2618     %Revision 1.36 2006/04/10 04:28:07 dashley
2619     %Edits.
2620     %
2621     %Revision 1.35 2006/04/08 04:03:02 dashley
2622     %Edits.
2623     %
2624     %Revision 1.34 2006/04/08 00:25:11 dashley
2625     %Edits.
2626     %
2627     %Revision 1.33 2006/04/05 02:04:35 dashley
2628     %Edits.
2629     %
2630     %Revision 1.32 2006/04/02 23:18:42 dashley
2631     %Edits.
2632     %
2633     %End of $RCSfile: manual.tex,v $.
2634    

dashley@gmail.com
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